Visual Flight Rules, Aviation Weather, VFR Weather, and Information for Pilot's
vfrweather.com & vfrwx.com [Updated: 08/28/2014 15:07:01 PDT]
VFR Weather - Visual Flight Rules Weather
VISUAL FLIGHT RULES - Rules that govern the procedures for conducting flight under visual conditions. The term "VFR" is also used in the United States to indicate weather conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling equal to or better than specified minima [VFR Weather Minimums]. In addition, it is used by pilots and controllers to indicate type of flight plan.


FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS
    FAR 43.3(g) - A holder of a pilot certificate issued under part 61 may perform preventive maintenance on any aircraft owned or operated by that pilot which is not used under part 121, 129, or 135.
    FAR 43.7(f) - A person holding at least a private pilot certificate may approve an aircraft for return to service after performing preventive maintenance. [Appendix A part C 01-32]
    FAR 43 - Appendix A (c) Preventive maintenance is limited to the following work, provided it does not involve complex assembly operations:
    (1) Removal, installation, and repair of landing gear tires.
    (2) Replacing elastic shock absorber cords on landing gear.
    (3) Servicing landing gear shock struts by adding oil, air, or both.
    (4) Servicing landing gear wheel bearings, such as cleaning and greasing.
    (5) Replacing defective safety wiring or cotter keys.
    (6) Lubrication not requiring disassembly other than removal of nonstructural items such as cover plates, cowlings, and fairings.
    (7) Making simple fabric patches not requiring rib stitching or the removal of structural parts or control surfaces.
    (8) Replenishing hydraulic fluid in the hydraulic reservoir.
    (9) Refinishing decorative coating of fuselage, balloon baskets, wings tail group surfaces (excluding balanced control surfaces), fairings, cowlings, landing gear, cabin, or cockpit interior...
    (10) Applying preservative or protective material to components where no disassembly of any primary structure or operating system is involved ...
    (11) Repairing upholstery and decorative furnishings of the cabin, cockpit, or balloon basket interior...
    (12) Making small simple repairs to fairing, nonstructural cover plates, cowling, and small patches and reinforcements...
    (13) Replacing side windows where that work does not interfere with the structure or any operating system such as controls, electrical equipment...
    (14) Replacing safety belts.
    (15) Replacing seats or seat parts with replacement parts approved for the aircraft, not involving disassembly of any primary structure...
    (16) Trouble shooting and repairing broken circuits in landing light wiring circuits.
    (17) Replacing bulbs, reflectors, and lenses of position and landing lights.
    (18) Replacing wheels and skis where no weight and balance computation is involved.
    (19) Replacing any cowling not requiring removal of the propeller or disconnection of flight controls.
    (20) Replacing or cleaning spark plugs and setting of spark plug gap clearance.
    (21) Replacing any hose connection except hydraulic connections.
    (22) Replacing prefabricated fuel lines.
    (23) Cleaning or replacing fuel and oil strainers or filter elements.
    (24) Replacing and servicing batteries.
    (25) Cleaning of balloon burner pilot and main nozzles in accordance with the balloon manufacturer's instructions.
    (26) Replacement or adjustment of nonstructural standard fasteners incidental to operations.
    (27) The interchange of balloon baskets and burners on envelopes when the basket or burner is designated as interchangeable...
    (28) The installations of anti-misfueling devices to reduce the diameter of fuel tank filler openings...
    (29) Removing, checking, and replacing magnetic chip detectors.
    (30,i,ii), (31), (32)
AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION MANUAL
    AIM 1-1 - A CDI (course deviation indicator) centered should read 0° FROM on the OBS (omnibearing selector) or 180° TO when using a VOT.
    AIM 4-1 - If the cloud base / flight ceiling is above 5,000AGL and visibility is greater than 5NM; ceiling, sky condition, visibility, and obstructions may be omitted from the ATIS broadcast.
    AIM 4-3-10b - An aircraft is expected to taxi to (but not onto) the end of the assigned runway unless prior approval for an intersection departure is received from ground control.
    AIM 4-3-10c - Pilots should state their position on the airport when calling the tower for takeoff from a runway intersection (Runway Hold Position Sign and/or Runway Guard Lights)
    AIM 4-3-11b5 - The minimum visibility for a pilot to receive a land and hold short clearance (LAHSO) is 1,000ft AGL and 3SM visibility [FAR 91.155].
    AIM 7-4 - Pilots are requested to maintain a minimum altitude of 2,000ft AGL from National Wildlife Refuges, Big Game Refuges, Game Ranges and Wildlife Ranges administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
    AIM 8-1 - Objects may appear father away if flying in haze or other view limiting situations due to a relaxed eye focus of 10-30ft (empty field myopia)
    WX CH7 - Four basic cloud types are divided into four families; High, Middle, Low, and clouds developing vertically
    WX CH8 - Steady precipitation preceding a front is an indication of stratiform clouds with little or no turbulence
    PHAK CH5 - Applying carb heat will decrease air density causing a richer mixture (higher fuel to air ratio).
    PHAK CH6 - If the Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is warmer than standard the density altitude will be higher than pressure altitude
    PHAK CH11/AIM 7-1 - Area Forecast (FA) contains information on forecast meteorological conditions, clouds, and general weather conditions over an area the size of several states
    PHAK CH14 - Add West variation and right wind angle, Subtract East variation and left wind angle. (West is best and Right is right)
    Flight Information Manual
  1. General
  2. Operating Limitations
  3. Emergency Procedures
  4. Normal Operating Procedures
  5. Performance
  6. Weight and Balance (Equipment List)
  7. Airplane Systems
  8. Handling, Preventive and Corrective Maintenance
  9. Supplements

FAR [Quick Ref] = [60] Airmen, [70] Airspace, [90] ATC
STANDARD AVIATION PHRASEOLOGY (Left+Click link for EXAMPLES or view PCG for full list)
    ABEAM - Your general position approximately 90 degrees to the right or left of the aircraft track from a specified fix, point, or object.
    ACKNOWLEDGE - Let me know that you have received my message
    ADVISE INTENTIONS - Tell me what you plan to do
    AFFIRMATIVE - Yes
    BLOCKED - Indicate that a radio transmission has been distorted or interrupted due to multiple simultaneous radio transmissions.
    CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF - Authorization for an aircraft to depart
    CLEARED FOR THE OPTION - Authorization for touch and go, low approach, missed approach, stop and go, or full-stop landing.
    CLEARED TO LAND - Authorization for an aircraft to land (based on known traffic and physical airport conditions).
    CLOSED TRAFFIC - Successive operations involving takeoffs and landings or low approaches where the aircraft does not exit the pattern.
    EXPEDITE - Prompt compliance is required to avoid an imminent situation
    FINAL - Aligned with the final approach course
    FLY HEADING (Degrees) - Specifies the heading/direction the pilot should fly expecting a turn with the shortest degree angle required.
    FUEL REMAINING - A cautionary advisory to ATC on the fuel remaining (in minutes) on board the aircraft until actual fuel exhaustion.
    GO AROUND - Instructions for a pilot to abandon their approach to land. VFR aircraft should overfly the runway climbing to traffic pattern altitude and re-enter the crosswind leg. IFR should execute the published missed approach procedure or proceed as instructed by ATC.
    HAVE NUMBERS - Used by pilots to inform ATC that they have received runway, wind, and altimeter information only (not receipt of ATIS).
    HEAVY - Alerts air traffic controller that an aircraft generates significant wake turbulence.
    HOLD FOR - Stay in place; where you are currently located
    HOW DO YOU HEAR ME? - Questions the quality of radio transmission or reception
    IDENT - Request for a pilot to activate the aircraft transponder identification feature.
    IMMEDIATELY - Action compliance is required to avoid an imminent situation
    MAKE SHORT APPROACH - Informs a pilot to alter his traffic pattern so as to make a short final approach.
    MAYDAY - Repeated three times indicates imminent and grave danger and immediate assistance is requested.
    MINIMUM FUEL - Indicates that an aircraft's fuel supply has reached a margin of safety where little to no delay is highly requested.
    NEGATIVE - No that is not correct
    NEGATIVE CONTACT - Informs ATC that specified traffic is not in sight OR unable to establish ATC frequency communication.
    LINE UP AND WAIT - Instructs a pilot to taxi onto the departure runway, line up, and wait. This instruction is not authorization to takeoff.
    RADAR CONTACT - Informs an aircraft that it is identified and flight following will be provided until radar identification is terminated.
    RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED - Inform a pilot that he will no longer be provided any radar services.
    READ BACK - Repeat my message back to me
    REPORT - Instruct pilots to advise ATC of specified information
    ROGER - I have received you last transmission. NOT used for a YES/NO question
    SAY AGAIN - Used to request a repeat of the last transmission
    SPEAK SLOWER - Request to reduce speech rate during communications.
    SQUAWK - Specifies setting and activation of modes, codes, and functions on the aircraft transponder.
    STAND BY - Pause a few seconds before reestablishing communications. It is NOT approval or denial.
    TRAFFIC HOLDING IN POSITION - Advises other aircraft that traffic has been authorized to "Line Up and Wait" on an active runway.
    TRAFFIC IN SIGHT - Inform a controller that previously issued traffic is in sight.
    UNABLE - Inability to comply with a specific instruction, request, or clearance
    VERIFY - Request confirmation or information
    WITHOUT DELAY - Proceed with approved instructions in a rapid manner
    WILCO - I have received your message, understand, and will comply
    5-BY-5 - Loud and clear. (PROPER: Bad, Poor, Fair, Good, Excellent)  TALLY-HO Aircraft has been sighted (PROPER: Traffic in sight).
STANDARD AVIATION ABBREVIATIONS A-E (Short List)
    ACs - Advisory Circulars
    ADC - Air Data Computer
    ADF - Automatic Direction Finder
    ADM - Aeronautical Decision Making process [Situational Awareness, Problem Recognition, Good Judgment]
    ADs - Airworthiness Directives
    A/FD - Airport/Facility Directory
    AFM - Airplane Flight Manual
    AFSS - Automated Flight Service Station
    AIM - Aeronautical Information Manual
    ARTCC - Air Route Traffic Control Center
    ASI - Airspeed Indicator
    ASR Approach - Airport Surveillance Radar - [Emergency: 121.5MHz - Monitored by FSS, FAA Radar Facilities, and most Control Towers]
    ATC - Air Traffic Control
    ATCRBS - ATC Radar Beacon System
    CDI - Course Deviation Indicator
    CFAs - Controlled Firing Areas
    CFI - Certificated Flight Instructor
    CFR - The Code of Federal Regulations
    CIG - Contraction for Cloud Ceilings - cloud bases measured from Above Ground Level.
    CRM - Crew Resource Management
    DOT - Department of Transportation
    DME - Distance Measuring Equipment
    DUATS - Direct User Access Terminal Service
    EFAS - En Route Flight Advisory Service - Flight Watch 122.0MHz [<18,000FT]
    EFD - Electronic Flight Display
    EGT - Exhaust Gas Temperature
    ELT - Emergency Locator Transmitters - Transmits on 121.5MHz, 243.0MHz, & 406.0MHz
    EPR - Engine Pressure Ratio
STANDARD AVIATION ABBREVIATIONS F-Z (Short List)
    FA - Area Forecasts
    FAA - Federal Aviation Administration
    FBO - Fixed Based Operator
    FOD - Foreign Object Damage
    GPS - Global Positioning System
    HIWAS - Hazardous In-flight Weather Advisory
    IFR - Instrument Flight Rules
    LIFR - Low Instrument Flight Rules
    MEL - Minimum Equipment Lists
    METAR - Meteorological Aerodrome Report [UPDATED: Hourly]
    MFD - Multi-Function Display
    MOAs - Military Operation Areas
    MTRs - Military Training Routes
    MVFR - Marginal Visual Flight Rules
    NEXRAD - Next Generation Weather Radar System
    NOTAMs - Notices to Airmen
    NSAs - National Security Areas
    OBS - Omni Bearing Selector
    OAT - Outside Air Temperature
    PIC - Pilot in Command
    PIREPs - Pilot Weather Reports
    POH - Pilot’s Operating Handbook
    RCO - Remote Communications Outlets [relays communication to FSS]
    REIL - Runway End Identifier Lights
    RMI - Radio Magnetic Indicator
    TAF - Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts [UPDATED: 0000z, 0600z, 1200z, and 1800z]
    TFR - Temporary Flight Restrictions
    TRSAs - Terminal Radar Service Areas
    TIBS - Transcribed Information Briefing Service
    TWEB - Transcribed Weather Broadcast
    VASI - Visual Approach Slope Indicator
    VFR - Visual Flight Rules
    VOR - Very High Frequency (VHF) Omnidirectional Range
    VSI - Vertical Speed Indicator
COMMON V-SPEED DEFINITIONS:
    V1 - takeoff decision speed
    V2 - takeoff safety speed
    Va - design maneuvering speed [FAR 25.1583 Full pitch, roll, or yaw controls will stall the aircraft below Va - structural failures above Va]
    Vb - design speed for maximum gust intensity
    Vbe - best endurance speed
    Vbg - best power-off glide speed
    Vbr - best range speed
    Vc - design cruise speed
    Vd - design dive speed
    Vdf - demonstration dive speed
    Vf - design flap speed
    Vfe - maximum flap-extended speed (top of white arc)
    Vh - maximum speed in level flight with maximum continuous power
    Vle - maximum landing-gear extended speed
    Vlo - maximum landing-gear operating speed
    Vlof - lift-off speed
    Vmca - minimum control speed with critical engine out, out of ground effect (red radial line)
    Vmcg - minimum control speed with critical engine out during takeoff run
    Vmo - maximum operating speed
    Mmo - maximum operating Mach number
    Vmu - minimum unstick speed
    Vne - never-exceed speed
    Vno - maximum structural cruising speed (top of green arc)
    Vr - rotation speed
    Vref - reference speed for final approach, normally (1.3 x Vso)
    Vso - stall speed in landing configuration (bottom of white arc)
    Vs1 - stall speed in a specified configuration (bottom of green arc)
    Vsse - minimum safe single-engine speed
    Vx - best angle-of-climb speed
    Vxse - best single-engine angle-of-climb speed
    Vy - best rate-of-climb speed
    Vyse - best single-engine rate-of-climb speed
CHR MORSE SOUNDS LIKE NATO PHONETIC
A  . ¯  Aircraft Altitude Air Traffic Control Alfa (AL-FAH)
B  ¯ . . .  Beechcraft Bonanza Barometric Barometer Bernoulli Law Boundary Layer Bearing Bravo (BRAH-VOH)
C  ¯ . ¯ .  Cessna Cockpit Ceiling Clouds Controlled Airspace Center of Gravity Common Traffic Advisory Frequency Charlie (CHAR-LEE)
D  ¯ . .  Dead Reckoning Departure Control Directional Gyro Drag Distance Measuring Equipment Delta (DELL-TAH)
E  .  East Echo (ECK-OH)
F  . . ¯ .  Flight Plan Flight Level Flight Service Station Flight Manual Fuel on Board Frequency Flying Foxtrot (FOKS-TROT)
G  ¯ ¯ .  General Aviation Ground Control Global Positioning System Glideslope Ground Speed Golf (GOLF)
H  . . . .  Heading Heading Indicator Height Above Ground Level Hazardous In-flight Weather Advisory Service Heliport High Intensity Runway Lights Horizontal Separation Hotel (HOH-TEL)
I  . .  Instrument Flight Rules Instrument Meteorological Conditions Indicated Airspeed India (IN-DEE-AH)
J  . ¯ ¯ ¯  Jet Airway Jeppesen Jet A-1 Jet Engine JAA JAR JSIT Juliett (JEW-LEE-ETT)
K  ¯ . ¯  Knots Kneeboards Kerosene Known Traffic Kits Kilo (KEY-LOH)
L  . ¯ . .  Laminar Flow Light Sport Aircraft Lift Load Factor LORAN LAHSHO Lift-Drag Ratio Lima (LEE-MAH)
M  ¯ ¯  Magnetic Variation Magnetic Deviation METAR Mike (MIKE)
N  ¯ .  North NDB Navaid November (NO-VEM-BER)
O  ¯ ¯ ¯  Outside Air Temperature Obstacle Clearance Outer Marker Overshoot On Course Oscar (OSS-CAH)
P  . ¯ ¯ .  Pilot in Command Pitot Tube Pitch Power Precision Approach Radar Precision Approach Path Indicator Primary Flight Display Papa (PAH-PAH)
Q  ¯ ¯ . ¯  Quadaplane Qualifications QFE Q-Routes Quality Control Qualified Flight Instructor Quality Policy Manual Quebec (KEH-BECK)
R  . ¯ .  Terminal Radar Approach Control Rudder Runway End Identification Lights Runway Visual Range aRea NAVigation Romeo (ROW-ME-OH)
S  . . .  South Stall Standard Terminal ARrival Stabilized Approach Squawk Sierra (SEE-AIR-RAH)
T  ¯  Transponder Tango (TANG-GO)
U  . . ¯  Universal Communication Useful Load Uncontrolled Airspace Undershoot Undercarriage Uniform (YOU-NEE-FORM)
V  . . . ¯  Vertical Speed Indicator Very High Frequency Omni Range Venturi Visual Meteorological Conditions Visual Flight Rules Vapor Trail V Speeds Victor (VIK-TAH)
CHR MORSE SOUNDS LIKE NATO PHONETIC
W  . ¯ ¯  West World Meteorological Organization Wide Area Augmentation System Wing Loading Wet Compass Whiskey (WISS-KEY)
X  ¯ . . ¯  XM Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules Xray (ECKS-RAY)
Y  ¯ . ¯ ¯  Yaw Yoke VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules Yankee (YANG-KEY)
Z  ¯ ¯ . .  VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather Zulu (ZOO-LOO)
1  . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯  VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules One (WUN)
2  . . ¯ ¯ ¯ VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules Two (TOO)
3  . . . ¯ ¯ VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules Three (TREE)
4  . . . . ¯ VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules Four (FOW-ER)
5  . . . . .  VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather Five (FIFE)
6  ¯ . . . .  VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather Six (SIX)
7  ¯ ¯ . . .  VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather Seven (SEV-EN)
8  ¯ ¯ ¯ . .  VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather Eight (AIT)
9  ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ .  VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather Nine (NIN-ER)
0  ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules Zero (ZEE-RO)
.  . ¯ . ¯ . ¯ VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules Period
,  ¯ ¯ . . ¯ ¯ VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules Comma
:  ¯ ¯ ¯ . . .  VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather Colon
?  . . ¯ ¯ . .  VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather Question Mark
"  . ¯ . . ¯ .  VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather Quotation Marks
´  . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ .  VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather Apostrophe
-  ¯ . . . . ¯ VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules Hyphen
!  ¯ . ¯ . ¯ ¯ VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules Exclamation Mark
FAR 61.53
    I LLNESSES
    M EDICATIONS

    S TRESS
    A LCOHOL
    F ATIGUE
    E MOTION / EAT MEAL
    P ILOT
    A IRCRAFT
    EN V IRONMENT
    E XTERNAL PRESSURES

    C ONSEQUENCES
    A LTERNATIVES
    R EALITY
    E XTERNAL PRESSURES
VFR PROGNOSTIC & RADAR CHART
AIRCRAFT REQUIREMENTS
    A IRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE
    R EGISTRATION (AIRCRAFT)
    R ESTRICTED RADIOTELEPHONE OPERATOR PERMIT (OUTSIDE USA)
    O WNERS MANUAL (PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK)
    W EIGHT & BALANCE
    S TATE REGISTRATION (AIRCRAFT)
PREFLIGHT INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR FLIGHTS
    R UNWAY LENGTHS
    A LTERNATES
    W EATHER

    F UEL REQUIREMENTS
    A TC DELAYS / TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS
    T AKEOFF/LANDING DISTANCE DATA
WEATHER BRIEFING
    S YNOPSIS
    A DVERSE CONDITIONS
    C URRENT WEATHER
    R
    E NROUTE FORCAST
    D ESTINATION TERMINAL FORECAST
    W INDS ALOFT
    I
    N OTAMS
    D
WEATHER CHARTS
    C ONSTANT PRESSURE
    O
    P ROGNOSTIC
    S URFACE ANALYSIS

    W EATHER DEPICTION
    A REA FORECAST - FA
    R ADAR SUMMARY - SD
    S EVERE WEATHER OUTLOOK - AC
VFR DAY REQUIRED EQUIPMENT - FAR 91.205(b01-b17)
    T ACHOMETER - each engine
    O IL PRESSURE GAUGE - each engine
    M ANIFOLD PRESSURE GAUGE - each altitude engine
    A LTIMETER
    T EMPERATURE GAUGE - each liquid-cooled engine
    O IL TEMPERATURE GAUGE - each engine

    F UEL LEVEL GAUGE - each tank
    F LOTATION GEAR & FLARES - if operated for hire over water
    L ANDING GEAR POSITION INDICATOR - if retractable gear
    A IRSPEED INDICATOR
    M AGNETIC COMPASS - with deviation card
    E MERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER (ELT) - CFR 91.207
    S AFTEY BELTS - including shoulder harnesses certified after 1978

    A NTI COLLISION LIGHTS - approved red or white certified after 1995
VFR NIGHT (+DAY) - FAR 91.205(c01-c06)
    F USES - three of each value or Circuit Breakers
    L ANDING LIGHTS - if operated for hire
    A NTICOLLISION LIGHTS - approved red or white
    P OSITION LIGHTS - navigation lights
    S OURCE OF ELECTRICITY - adequate for all equipment
IFR REQUIRED EQUIPMENT
    G ENERATOR/ALTERNATOR
    R ADIOS
    A TTITUDE
    B ALL (inclinometer)

    C LOCK
    A LTIMETER
    R ATE OF TURN - Turn and Slip Coordinator
    D IRECTIONAL GYRO
    D ME if using VORs at or above FL240
WAYPOINT, FIX, INTERSECTION, CHANGE OF COURSE
    T URN - Start Turn To New Heading
    T IME - Note Time, Start Timer
    T WIST - Tune/Select New Radio Freq (Identify), Set OBS
    T HROTTLE - Make Power Changes To Slow Down, Climb Or Descend
    T ALK - Make Required Reports


IFR MANDATORY REPORTS
    F IXES - Arriving or Leaving
    A LTITUDE CHANGES
    M ISSED APPROACH
    E QUIPMENT - Loss or Problems

    P ERFORMANCE - Poor Climb / Descend, TAS Change
FLIGHT CLEARANCE / DELIVERY
    C LEARANCE LIMIT
    R OUTING
    A LTITUDE
    F REQUENCY (RADIOS)
    T RANSPONDER CODE
    S PECIAL INSTRUCTIONS
BEFORE TAKEOFF
    C ONTROLS - Free And Correct, Flaps Operable
    I NSTRUMENTS - Flight And System Instruments Checked
    G AS - Fuel Tanks Checked And Selected
    A TTITUDE/TRIM - Set And Check Trim
    R ADIOS - VOR Check, Set COM And NAV Radios, Transponder
    S AFETY - Seats, Seat Belts, Security, Doors & Windows

    B OOST PUMP
    L IGHTS
    T RANSPONDER
TAKE OFF
    C RAM (POWER)
    C LIMB (PITCH)
    C LEAN (DRAG, FLAPS/GEAR UP)
    C OOL (COWL FLAPS)
    ANGLE OF ATTACK = Acute angle formed between the chord line of an airfoil and relative wind striking those surfaces.
    HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK Indication = ATTITUDE indicator is high (ascending) and VERTICAL SPEED indicator is low (descending).
    CRITICAL ANGLE OF ATTACK = is the angle of attack which produces maximum lift coefficient for a given surface allowing a wing to stall above this point regardless of airspeed, flight attitude, or weight. Typically 16° to 20° depending on design. As weight is increased more lift is required to achieve maximum lift. Lift Force = ½ * Air Density * Airspeed² * Surface Area * Lift Coefficient
    VICTOR Airways: These Federal Airways extend from 1,200FT AGL to 17,999ft MSL and has a primary protected obstacle clearance area of 8NM with 4NM on each side of the centerline.
    FLAPS = Do not increase lift; it allows the same amount of lift to be generated at slower airspeeds.
    SPIN ENTRY Definition: Maneuvering an aircraft with the ailerons opposite the direction of the turn (uncoordinated flight) as-well-as holding elevator back pressure (the aircraft is flying slower than the speed for which it is trimmed).
    LEFT TURNING TENDENCY [Propeller Driven - Single Engine]
    North American built single engine aircraft utilizing a single propeller spins (from the perspective of the pilot) to the right. There are four forces aggregated together turning the airplane to the LEFT during HIGH POWER and LOW SPEEDS.
    1) Propeller Rotation - utilizing Newtons law of equal and opposite reaction, the TORQUE of the spinning crank shaft and propeller to the right produces an equal and opposite force to the LEFT (rotational).
    2) Spiraling Slipstream (Cork Screw Effect) - is caused by the propeller rotating the airflow clockwise around the fuselage striking the vertical stabilizer on the left side aircraft yawing it to the LEFT.
    3) P-Factor (Asymmetric Propeller Loading) - the descending blade (right side of the aircraft) has a higher angle of attack to the relative wind than the ascending blade (left side of the aircraft). Think about wind blowing from left to right, the angle of the aircraft is 45° pointed up towards the wind direction. The descending blade is cutting into the wind while the ascending blade is moving with the wind. The right side of the propeller has more thrust than the left side there by yawing the aircraft to the LEFT.
    4) Gyroscopic Precession (tail-wheeled aircraft) - as the tail of the aircraft is raised off of the ground where friction of the tire is no longer effective, a vertical to horizontal force is applied to the spinning propeller (top and bottom). Due to the rotational axis of the propeller torque is redirected 90° perpendicular and horizontal in the direction of rotation (left side of propeller pulls and right pushes) yawing as well as pitching the aircraft to the LEFT.
    Very High Frequency (VHF) Omnidirectional Range (VOR) are simple devices in operation as-long-as you can visualize your aircraft in relationship to the RADIALS of the VOR. Knowing a few tricks will help you correctly decipher the information.
1) The heading of your aircraft does not affect the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) only your ground track over time.
2) A radial is defined as a line of Magnetic Bearing extending in a 360° arc FROM a VOR. The radial that is selected via the Omni Bearing Selector (OBS) defines your aircraft's relationship to that radial (In-front of [FROM], Behind [TO], Left, or Right - think of the radial as a super focused spotlight generated by the station pointing ONLY in the direction set by the OBS).
3) The ambiguity indicator [TO-FROM] defines your viewpoint to that radial (are seeing the spot light pointing away from you or are you blinded by it).
4) The VOR 0° radial on the Compass Rose found on charts always points to magnetic north.
5) The VOR indicator instrument has one open circle (your aircraft´s current position) and five solid dots (2° deviation from the selected OBS course).
COMPASS DIP
    A CCELERATE
    N ORTH
    D ECELERATE
    S OUTH

COMPASS LEAD / LAG
    N ORTH
    O PPOSITE
    S OUTH
    E XAGGERATED

PARTIAL-PANEL COMPASS TURNS
    U NDERSHOOT
    N ORTH
    O VERSHOOT
    S OUTH
PRE-LANDING CHECKLIST
    G AS - Fuel Tank Selection, Fuel Pump On
    U NDERCARRIAGE - Landing Gear Down
    M IXTURE - Normally Full Rich (Sea Level, At Least)
    P ROP - Full Increase (High RPM)
    S AFETY - Seats, Seat Belts, Cabin Security, Passenger Briefing
ENGINE OUT EMERGENCY
    P ITCH FOR BEST GLIDE
    L ANDING SITE
    (EASE!)

    S EAT BELTS
    T ROUBLESHOOT
    A PPROACH
    R ADIOS
    T URN OFF
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE
    M ILITARY OPERATIONS
    C ONTROLLED FIRING

    P ROHIBITED
    R ESTRICTED
    A LERT
    W ARNING
    N ATIONAL SECURITY
AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION CATEGORIES
    T RANSPORT
    U TILITY
    R ESTRICTED
    N ORMAL

    P ROVISIONAL
    A CROBATIC
    L IMITED
    E XPERIMENTAL
AIRPORT SIGN TYPES
    M ANDATORY INSTRUCTION
    I NFORMATION
    D ESTINATION

    D IRECTION
    L OCATION
    R UNWAY DISTANCE REMAINING

    RED AND WHITE = RUNWAY IS IN-SIGHT
    BLACK SQUARE = YOU ARE THERE
    YELLOW RAY = POINTS THE WAY

    RUNWAY BOUNDARY = Identifies entrance to runway from taxiway
    OUTBOUND DESTINATION = Shows direction to the takeoff runway
NTSB NOTIFICATIONS
    P ROPERTY DAMAGE >= $25k
    -
    F IRE - In Flight
    A CCIDENT
    C OLLISION - In Flight
    T URBINE FAILURE
    I LLNESS OF CREW MEMBER
    O VERDUE AIRCRAFT
    N O CONTROL - Control failure of Any Sort

NOTE: Report filed within 10 days after an accident [NTSB 830.15].
Morse Learner (v2006.2.14) By Wilfred Verkley http://www.wxv.co.nz/morselearner/ is a small computer program for Microsoft Windows to assist in learning and experimenting with international morse code. You can use it to transmit or playback morse messages, practice learning to receive morse characters, practice transmitting morse characters, or practice receiving whole words. Its emphasis is to make learning morse code easy and fun. Requires Microsoft .NET 1.1 framework. HINT: Press F2 to quickly start your practice session. NOTE: Windows XP support only.
Neil Spooner in a Tipsy Nipper over corrected a standard aerobatic stall and how he recovered from his 26 Turn Flat Spin. 1:40min into video clip from LoopTV.Aero
Steve Henry of Caldwell, Idaho shows a dead stick takeoff in his STOL Highlander
Go to deadsticktakeoff.com for more video moments.
    WEATHER DATA: Direction of weather, movement, & wind information PRINTED or published is measured from TRUE NORTH. PIREPS, ASOS, AWOS, & ATIS spoken or VOICE messages are measured from MAGNETIC NORTH.   PRINT = TRUE; VOICE = MAGNETIC;
    AIRPORT ADVISORY AREA Area within 10 miles of an airport without an operational control tower, and on which a Flight Service Station is located.
    TWEB: Transcribed Weather Broadcasts provides continuous aeronautical and meteorological information over certain NDB and VOR facilities including selected route forecasts.
    STANDARD ATMOSPHERE = Temperature = 20°C (68°F), Air Density = 1.225 kg/m³ (0.0765 lb/cu ft), Altitude = Sea Level, Relative Humidity = 20%
    STANDARD DATUM PLANE = Pressure altitude indicated when altimeter is set to 29.92 in Hg.
    ABSOLUTE ALTITUDE = Height above ground level (AGL)
    TRUE ALTITUDE = Height above mean sea level (MSL)
    INDICATED ALTITUDE = Altitude shown on the altimeter
    PRESSURE ALTITUDE [Standard Datum Plane] = Indicated altitude of an altimeter when set to 29.92"Hg (1013 hPa, 14.696psi)
Flying from LOW to HIGH pressure, true altitude will be higher than indicated.
Flying from HIGH to LOW pressure, true altitude will be lower than indicated.

    DENSITY ALTITUDE = Pressure altitude corrected for Non-Standard Atmosphere temperature and humidity.
    HIGH DENSITY ALTITUDE = HIGHER than standard TEMPERATURE and/or HUMIDITY.
Flying from COLDER to HOTTER regions, true altitude will be higher than indicated altitude.
    LOW DENSITY ALTITUDE = LOWER than standard TEMPERATURE and/or HUMIDITY.
Flying from HOTTER to COLDER regions, true altitude will be lower than indicated altitude.
    NAVIGATION:  COURSE: Intended direction of travel (Line on map or Point-A to Point-B).  HEADING: The magnetic direction the nose of the airplane is pointing.   TRACK: The actual path over the surface of earth the aircraft has traveled.
    PRIMARY Instruments: The instrument that provides the most pertinent information.
    SUPPORTING Instruments: The instruments that provides quality control and confirms primary instrumentation.
    NOTE: Proficient instrument pilots utilize the ATTITUDE indicator ¾ of the time during instrument scanning procedures.>
    HYPOXIA (altitude sickness) reduces the amount of oxygen in the brain causing such symptoms as dizziness, shortness of breath, and mental confusion. affinity hypoxia = failure of the hemoglobin to release oxygen to the tissues, as may occur with a left-shifted oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. anemic hypoxia = reduction of the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood as a result of a decrease in the total hemoglobin or an alteration of the hemoglobin constituents. histotoxic hypoxia = impaired utilization of oxygen by tissues, as in cyanide poisoning. hypoxemic(hypoxic) hypoxia = insufficient oxygen reaching the blood, as at the decreased barometric pressures of high altitudes. stagnant hypoxia = failure to transport sufficient oxygen because of inadequate blood flow, as in heart failure.
    Hazardous Attitudes [Embry Riddle] = Anti-authority ["Don´t tell me!"], Impulsivity ["Do something quickly!"], Invulnerability ["It won´t happen to me!"], Macho ["I can do it!"], Resignation ["What´s the use?"]
VFR AIRSPACE SEC
VFR AIRPORTS SEC
VFR TOPOGRAPHIC SEC
VFR COMMUNICATION SEC
CLASS ALTITUDE AIRSPACE VISIBILITY CLOUD CLEARANCE ENTRY EQUIPMENT RATING VFR
SEPARATION
ADVISORIES SERVICES
A >= 18,000MSL &
<= FL600
50 Contiguous
HI, AK[EAST]
- - IFR: ATC Clearance
VFR: Operations Prohibited
IFR Equipped Instrument Rating - YES -
B > SURFACE &
<= 10,000MSL
30NM MODE C
Radius
Custom Shelf
§§§ Clear of Clouds ATC Clearance Two-Way Radio, Transponder
with Altitude Reporting
Private Certificate or
Authorized Student
ALL YES Radar, Instrument Approaches, Weather, Control Tower, High Density
C > SURFACE &
<= 4,000MSL
5NM Radius Core
10NM Radius > 1,200MSL
§§§ ‡‡‡ IFR: ATC Clearance
VFR: Prior Two-Way
Communication w/ATC
Two-Way Radio, Transponder
with Altitude Reporting
Student Certificate IFR YES Radar, Instrument Approaches, Weather, Control Tower
D > SURFACE &
<= 2,500MSL
Based on Instrument
Procedures
§§§ ‡‡‡ IFR: ATC Clearance
VFR: Prior Two-Way
Communication w/ATC
Two-Way Radio Student Certificate Runway Operations Workload Permitting Instrument Approaches, Weather, Control Tower
E >= 10,000MSL &
< 18,000MSL
IFR
Controlled
5 SM 1,000FT Abv;
1,000FT Blw;
1SM Hrzntl
IFR: ATC Clearance
Ø for VFR
Transponder
with Altitude Reporting
Student Certificate Ø Workload Permitting Instrument Approaches, Weather
E > 1,200AGL &
< 10,000MSL
" §§§ ‡‡‡ " Ø " " " "
G > 1,200AGL &
>= 10,000MSL
Uncontrolled 5 SM 1,000FT Abv;
1,000FT Blw;
1SM Horzntl
Ø for VFR Ø Student Certificate Ø Workload Permitting Control Tower or Nothing
G > 1,200AGL &
< 10,000MSL [NIGHT]
" §§§ ‡‡‡ " " " " " "
G > 1,200AGL &
< 10,000MSL [DAY]
" 1 SM " " " " " " "
G <= 1,200AGL [NIGHT] " §§§
[91.155(b)]
" " " " " " "
G <= 1,200AGL [DAY] " 1 SM
[91.155(b)]
Clear of Clouds " " " " " "
                 §§§ = 3 SM;  ‡‡‡ = 1,000FT Above; 500FT Below; 2,000FT Horizontal;  Ø = Not Required or None
E6B CALCULATION EXAMPLES
Question: On a cross-country flight, point A is crossed at 11:00Z and the plan is to reach point B at 11:45Z. Use the following information to determine the indicated airspeed required to reach point B on schedule.
Information: Distance between A & B = 83NM; Forcast Winds 174° at 23kts; Pressure Altitude = 7,600ft; Ambient temperature = -15°C; True Course = 133°
E6B Functions: 1) Ground Speed [GS], 2) Required True Air Speed [REQTAS], Required Calibrated Air Speed [REQCAS]. Answer: 118.5 kts

Question: While en route to Hoquiam on Victor 27 from Seattle, your flight crosses the 346° radial of Olympia VORTAC at 1234Z; then crosses the WONKU intersection at 1239Z. What is the estimated time at arrival at Hoquiam VORTAC near Ocean Shores?
Information: Distance between 346° radial of Olympia VORTAC & WONKU intersection = 12.5NM; Distance between WONKU and HQM is 44NM
E6B Functions: 1) Ground Speed [GS], 2) LEG TIME  Answer: 1257Z

Question: What is the estimated time en route from Auburn S50 to Arlington KAWO?
Information: Distance is 50NM, Course is 3°, and wind is from 312° & 13KTS and the true airspeed is 142KTS. Add 9min for departure and climb-out.
E6B Functions: 1) Heading/GS [HDG/GS], 2) LEG TIME  Answer: 32min

Question: If a true heading of 138° results in a ground track of 127° and a true airspeed of 136 knots results in a ground speed of 152 knots, the wind would be from?
E6B Functions: 1) Wind.  Answer: 253° at 32 kts

Question: Determine the pressure altitude at an airport that is 3,583 feet MSL with an altimeter setting of 29.72.
Information: International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)'s International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is 15°C [59°F], adiabatic lapse of 2°C [3.5°F] per 1000ft, and barometric pressure of 1013.25hPa (millibars) or 29.92in Hg
E6B Functions: 1) P-D/ALT.  Answer: 3,783ft
TIM´s AIR NAVIGATION SIMULATOR
I decided to write this applet in order to learn java - it's my first java applet!
I am also considering getting an instrument rating and thought this would be a good way to really sharpen my understanding of air navigation.
Please send me your comments! - Tim Carlson (mimatvisidotcom)
WASHINGTON STATE AIRPORT REFERENCE GUIDE

The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) Aviation is responsible for protecting and preserving Washington State’s 139 public use general aviation airports. Airports are a vital part of the communities they serve and are an important part of Washington State’s transportation system.
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EXPLICIT RUNWAY CROSSING PROCEDURE CHANGE
FAA Order N JO 7110.532

Beginning June 30, 2010, controllers will be required to issue explicit instructions to cross or hold short of each runway that intersects a taxi route.  "Taxi to" will no longer be used when issuing taxi instructions to an assigned take-off runway.   Instructions to cross a runway normally will be issued one at a time. An aircraft or vehicle must have crossed the previous runway before another runway crossing is issued. Exceptions may apply for closely spaced runways.  This applies to any runway including inactive or closed runways.  Changes will also be made to the AIM and AIP to reflect the new procedures.   Never cross a hold line without explicit ATC instructions. If in doubt ASK!  Reminder: You may not enter a runway unless you have been: instructed to cross or taxi onto that specific runway; cleared to take off from that runway; or instructed to position and hold on that specific runway.
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LINE UP AND WAIT PHRASEOLOGY CHANGE
FAA Notice JO 7110.754

Beginning on September 30, 2010, the words "Position and Hold" will no longer be used to instruct a pilot to enter the runway and await takeoff clearance. Under the new "Line Up and Wait" phraseology, the controller will:
  • State the call-sign.
  • State the departure runway.
  • State "Line Up and Wait".
Differences in phraseology contribute to runway incursions. Analysis by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) revealed that differences between FAA and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) air traffic control phraseology contribute to runway incursion risks. NTSB recommended that the FAA adopt the international standard terminology: "Line Up and Wait" to replace "Position and Hold".  FAA Safety Analysis. In accordance with its Safety Management System procedures, the FAA Air Traffic Organization conducted a safety analysis of this recommendation. FAA implemented mitigations to ensure a safe transition from the old phraseology to the new.  Exercise caution. Be aware the phrase "Traffic Holding in Position" will continue to be used to advise other aircraft that traffic has been authorized to "Line Up and Wait" on an active runway.  REMEMBER: Never cross a hold line without explicit ATC instructions. You may not enter a runway unless you have been:
  • Instructed to cross or taxi onto that specific runway
  • Cleared to take off from that runway, or
  • Instructed to "Line Up and Wait" on that specific runway
King County International Airport / Boeing Field (KBFI) - VFR APPROACH
Welcome!  King County International Airport—also known as Boeing Field—is one of the busiest primary non-hub airports in the nation. Located just five miles south of downtown Seattle, it averages more than 300,000 operations (takeoffs and landings) each year. In 2001, it was selected by the National Air Transportation Association as one of the "100 Most Needed Airports" in the United States. It is financed by airport tenants´ and customers´ fees, and receives no general tax revenues.  Boeing Field ranks among the most successful public investments in state history.   The airport serves small commercial passenger airlines, cargo carriers, private aircraft owners, helicopters, corporate jets, and military and other aircraft. It is also home to the Boeing Company’s 737 aircraft flight-test program, along with other Boeing operations. The Museum of Flight is located there, with its wide variety of aircraft and exhibits showcasing aviation history. It is frequently host to celebrities and dignitaries—including the President of the United States—who prefer Boeing Field because of its proximity to downtown Seattle and other commercial areas.
Snoqualmie Valley - East Practice Area [SEATTLE, WA]
VFR TERMINAL AREA CHART - MAY 30 2013 [Click to Download]

Meteorological Aerodrome Report [UPDATED: Hourly]
2014/09/02 05:53 - KBFI 020553Z 04003KT 10SM FEW040 OVC080 19/12 A2999 RMK AO2 RAE49 SLP154 P0000 60000 T01940117 10250 20194 50003 -
2014/09/02 05:53 - KRNT 020553Z AUTO 35006KT 10SM SCT038 OVC080 19/13 A2998 RMK AO2 SLP157 T01890128 10239 20189 50003 -
2014/09/02 05:53 - KPAE 020553Z AUTO 36007KT 10SM BKN047 OVC055 15/13 A3000 RMK AO2 SLP159 T01500133 10217 20150 58002 -
2014/09/02 06:35 - KPWT 020635Z AUTO 00000KT 10SM CLR 12/11 A3003 RMK AO1 -
2014/09/02 06:35 - KAWO 020635Z AUTO 33004KT 10SM OVC060 16/12 A3000 RMK AO1 -

Terminal Aerodrome Forecast [UPDATED: 0000z, 0600z, 1200z, and 1800z]
2014/09/02 06:24 - TAF KBFI 020520Z 0206/0306 31005KT P6SM SCT040 BKN050 - FM020800 VRB03KT P6SM OVC030 - FM021200 VRB04KT P6SM OVC020 - FM021800 19008KT P6SM BKN030 - FM022000 18008KT P6SM VCSH BKN030 - FM022300 18007KT P6SM -SHRA OVC030 -
 
2014/09/02 06:24 - TAF KPAE 020520Z 0206/0306 36007KT P6SM BKN040 BKN070 - FM020800 VRB04KT P6SM OVC020 - FM021100 VRB04KT P6SM OVC010 - FM021800 19008KT P6SM OVC025 - FM022000 18010KT P6SM -SHRA OVC020 -
1) Who are you contacting?  2) Who are you?  3) Where are you?  4) What do you want to do?

ON INITIAL CALLUP
(Towers, ATC handoffs)
The name of the facility that you are calling,
Your full aircraft identification,
Your message.
ON INITIAL CALLUP
(Center, Approach Control, and FSS)
The name of the facility that you are calling,
Your full aircraft identification,
Frequency you are listening on (FSS)
AFTER INITIAL CALLUP
(Center, Approach Control, and FSS)
Your full aircraft identification,
Your position, altitude, and what you want to do.
NOTE: Do not shorten your aircraft identification until the controller does.
EXAMPLE ATC COMMUNICATIONS
[PILOT]: Boeing Ground Diamond 1234AB
[ATC]: 1234AB Boeing Ground go ahead
[PILOT]: At Galvin three requesting VFR North East Mercer Island Departure with Bravo
[ATC]: Taxi to one three left via Alpha
[PILOT]: One three left via Alpha 1234AB



[PILOT]: Boeing Tower Diamond 1234AB
[ATC]: 1234AB Boeing Tower
[PILOT]: Holding short runway one three left, in sequence number two, ready for take-off North East Mercer Island departure
[ATC]: 1234AB hold short runway one three left
[PILOT]: Holding short runway one three left 1234AB
[ATC]: Boeing Tower 1234AB, cleared for takeoff Mercer Island departure approved, wind variable at six
[PILOT]: Cleared for takeoff 1234AB



[PILOT]: Boeing Tower Diamond 1234AB
[ATC]: 1234AB Boeing Tower
[PILOT]: Seven miles to the North East at two thousand two hundred feet VFR requesting the option with Juliet
[ATC]: Enter a right downwind to runway three one right report abeam Safeco Field, traffic departing straight out about a mile off the departure end of the runway, caravan
[PILOT]: Right downwind to three one right report abeam Safeco Field looking for traffic 1234AB
[PILOT]: Boeing Tower Diamond 1234AB reporting abeam Safeco Field, northbound traffic in sight
[ATC]: 1234AB Boeing Tower make short approach, you are cleared for the option on runway three one right, wind 320 at 7, you are turning in front of a citation on a 12 mile final
[PILOT]: Cleared for the option three one right 1234AB



[PILOT]: Tacoma Tower Diamond 1234AB
[ATC]: 1234AB Tacoma Tower
[PILOT]: Seven miles to the South East over Tacoma Dome at two thousand feet VFR requesting transition of your airspace to the West
[ATC]: Transition to the West approved. Cross mid field at or above two thousand feet
[PILOT]: Transition approved. Cross mid field at or above two thousand feet 1234AB
STANDARD AVIATION ABBREVIATIONS GTK
    ASEL - Airplane Single-Engine Land
    AMEL - Airplane Multi-Engine Land
    ASES - Airplane Single-Engine Sea
    AMES - Airplane Multi-Engine Sea
    AIRMETS - Airmen´s Meteorological Information [VALID: 6 hours] -
        [SIERRA] = IFR Conditions affecting 50% or more of an area, Mountain obscuration;
        [TANGO] = Moderate turbulance, Sustained surface winds >30KTS, Low Level wind shear
        [ZULU] = Moderate icing, Freezing levels
    SIGMET - Severe Aviation Weather Advisory [VALID: 4 hours]
    CONVECTIVE SIGMET - Severe Aviation Weather Advisory [VALID: 2 hours] - (Tornadoes, Lines of Thunderstorms, Embedded Thunderstorms, & Very Strong to greater intensity Thunderstorms covering 40% or more with Surface winds of 50KTS+ or ¾" hail or larger).
    UNUSUAL ATTITUDES - 1) Immediately view the Air Speed Indicator (ASI) execute CORRECTION, 2) view the Turn Coordinator (TC) execute CORRECTION. then 3) Normalize remaining instrumentation. If your ASI is increasing or points toward the left wing - REDUCE POWER, LEVEL WINGS, then RAISE NOSE. If your ASI is decreasing or points toward the nose - ADD POWER, LOWER NOSE, then LEVEL WINGS.
AIRCRAFT INFORMATION
    POSITION LIGHTS
        RED = Port [Left], GREEN = Starboard [Right], WHITE = Tail [Behind]

AIRPORT INFORMATION
    GENERAL
        Seven Mic Clicks - High Intensity Lights (clicking within 5sec: +5 Medium, +3 Low) [15min Timer]
    AUNICOM/SUPERAWOS
        Single Mic Click - Welcome Message
        Three Mic Clicks - Weather Advisory (clicking within 10sec: +3 Extended Advisories)
        Four Mic Clicks - Radio Check (record & playback)
Luiz Monteiro, LLC d/b/a luizmonteiro.com
As access to the Internet around the globe is increasing and computers are becoming more powerful, learning experiences can be enhanced through rich web-based learning applications. Our site, luizmonteiro.com, helps students learn more on the ground through highly realistic online instrument simulators. These learning tools provide an efficient and cost effective way to meet training objectives in minimal time. Expensive flight time and associated environmentally detrimental carbon emissions are reduced significantly through this approach.
Aviation is a rapidly growing, particularly in developing countries, and there is great need for training a new generation of pilots who will fly more sophisticated aircraft in increasingly crowded and complex airspace. We continue to work with the aviation community all over the world in improving and creating new exciting products. Our firm is physically located in sunny Sarasota, Florida, USA.
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DURATION OF CERTAIN MEDICAL CERTIFICATES - Federal Register: July 24, 2008
Docket No. FAA-2007-27812; Amendment Nos. 61-121, 65-52, 67-20, and 183-13
If you hold And on the date of examination for your most recent medical certificate you were And you are conducting an operation requiring Then your medical certificate expires, for that operation, at the end of the last day of the
(i) A first-class medical certificate. (A) Under age 40 an airline transport pilot certificate 12th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the medical certificate.
(B) Age 40 or older an airline transport pilot certificate 6th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the medical certificate
(C) Any age a commercial pilot certificate or an air traffic control tower operator certificate 12th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the medical certificate
(D) Under age 40 a recreational pilot certificate, a private pilot certificate, a flight instructor certificate §§§, a student pilot certificate, or a sport pilot certificate ‡‡‡ 60th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the medical certificate
(E) Age 40 or older a recreational pilot certificate, a private pilot certificate, a flight instructor certificate §§§, a student pilot certificate, or a sport pilot certificate ‡‡‡ 24th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the medical certificate
(ii) A second-class medical certificate (A) Any age a commercial pilot certificate or an air traffic control tower operator certificate 12th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the medical certificate
(B) Under age 40 a recreational pilot certificate, a private pilot certificate, a flight instructor certificate §§§, a student pilot certificate, or a sport pilot certificate ‡‡‡ 60th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the medical certificate
(C) Age 40 or older a recreational pilot certificate, a private pilot certificate, a flight instructor certificate §§§, a student pilot certificate, or a sport pilot certificate ‡‡‡ 24th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the medical certificate
(iii) A third-class medical certificate (A) Under age 40 a recreational pilot certificate, a private pilot certificate, a flight instructor certificate §§§, a student pilot certificate, or a sport pilot certificate ‡‡‡ 60th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the medical certificate
(B) Age 40 or older a recreational pilot certificate, a private pilot certificate, a flight instructor certificate §§§, a student pilot certificate, or a sport pilot certificate ‡‡‡ 24th month month after the month of the date of examination shown on the medical certificate
§§§ = (when acting as pilot in command or a required pilot flight crewmember in operations other than glider or balloon)
‡‡‡ = (when not using a U.S. driver’s license as medical qualification)
VOR INSTRUMENT EXAMPLES

Question: What radial is the aircraft crossing?
Information: A VOR receiver has the OBS set to a course of 071° with a TO indication and the CDI is centered.
Answer: 251°
Follow-up: The OBS radial selected indicates you have not yet passed the VORTAC based on the TO indication.

Question: What is the closest airport to your aircraft's position?
Information: The VOR is tuned to the HQM VORTAC on the Seattle Sectional. The OBS is set to 250° with a TO indication and the CDI deflection is 4 dots to the left.
Answer: BOWERMAN - KHQM
Follow-up: The CDI would show a full Left deflection with an OFF indication if over OCEAN SHORES - W04

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AIRMAN KNOWLEDGE TEST GUIDES

What is required to become a skilled and effective recreational pilot or private pilot? Although some individuals possess more knowledge and skills than others, no one is a natural-born pilot. Competent pilots become so through study, training, and experience. This knowledge test guide will answer most of your questions about taking a recreational pilot or private pilot knowledge test by covering the following areas: knowledge test eligibility requirements; knowledge areas on the tests; descriptions of the tests; process for taking a knowledge test; validity of airman knowledge test reports; use of test aids and materials; testing procedures for applicants with learning or reading disabilities; cheating or other unauthorized conduct; and retesting procedures. You will find in the Appendices: sample test questions for each category, topics that are tested, a listing of reference/study materials, testing center contact information, and a listing of definitions used through this guide. This guide will help in preparing you to take one or all of the following tests.
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SAMPLE AIRMEN KNOWLEDGE TEST QUESTIONS

Airman Knowledge Test Question Bank is a FAA computer-assisted testing system is supported by a series of supplement publications. These publications, available through several aviation publishers, include the graphics, legends, and maps that are needed to successfully respond to certain test items.
NOTE: Also select the appropriate Computer Testing Supplements for your course of study.
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PRACTICAL TEST STANDARDS

Airplane Practical Test Standards book has been published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish the standards for the flight instructor certification practical tests for the airplane category and the single-engine and multiengine classes. FAA inspectors and designated pilot examiners shall conduct practical tests in compliance with these standards. Flight instructors and applicants should find these standards helpful in practical test preparation.
SUBPART E -- PRIVATE PILOTS
Sec.61.109 - Aeronautical Experience

a) For an airplane single-engine rating. Except as provided in paragraph (k) of this section, a person who applies for a private pilot certificate with an airplane category and single-engine class rating must log at least 40 hours of flight time that includes at least 20 hours of flight training from an authorized instructor and 10 hours of solo flight training in the areas of operation listed in Sec. 61.107(b)(1) of this part, and the training must include at least
    (1) 3 hours of cross-country flight training in a single-engine airplane
    (2) Except as provided in Sec. 61.110 of this part, 3 hours of night flight training in a single-engine airplane that includes:
            (i) One cross-country flight of over 100 nautical miles total distance; and
            (ii) 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating control tower
    (3) 3 hours of flight training in a single-engine airplane on the control and maneuvering of an airplane solely by reference to instruments, including straight and level flight, constant airspeed climbs and descents, turns to a heading, recovery from unusual flight attitudes, radio communications, and the use of navigation systems/facilities and radar services appropriate to instrument flight
    (4) 3 hours of flight training with an authorized instructor in a single-engine airplane in preparation for the practical test, which must have been performed within the preceding 2 calendar months from the month of the test
    (5) 10 hours of solo flight time in a single-engine airplane, consisting of at least:
            (i) 5 hours of solo cross-country time
            (ii) One solo cross country flight of 150 nautical miles total distance, with full-stop landings at three points, and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of more than 50 nautical miles between the takeoff and landing locations
            (iii) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating control tower
k) Permitted credit for use of a flight simulator or flight training device
    (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (k)(2) of this section, a maximum of 2.5 hours of training in a flight simulator or flight training device representing the category, class, and type, if applicable, of aircraft appropriate to the rating sought, may be credited toward the flight training time required by this section, if received from an authorized instructor
    (2) A maximum of 5 hours of training in a flight simulator or flight training device representing the category, class, and type, if applicable, of aircraft appropriate to the rating sought, may be credited toward the flight training time required by this section if the training is accomplished in a course conducted by a training center certificated under part 142 of this chapter
    3) Except when fewer hours are approved by the Administrator, an applicant for a private pilot certificate with an airplane, rotorcraft, or powered-lift rating, who has satisfactorily completed an approved private pilot course conducted by a training center certificated under part 142 of this chapter, need only have a total of 35 hours of aeronautical experience to meet the requirements of this section

Amdt. 61-125, Eff. 4/2/10
Clayton Scott Field / Renton Municipal Airport (KRNT) - VFR APPROACH
The Renton Municipal Airport, owned by the City of Renton, is a general aviation airport which serves Renton and other nearby communities. The airport provides regional aviation services for air charter, air taxi, corporate, business and recreational flyers. It is also an FAA-designated "Reliever" airport, diverting general aviation aircraft traffic from Sea-Tac International Airport.  The Airport is used predominately by single-engine piston aircraft, and ranks among the top six airports in the State of Washington in terms of aircraft landings and takeoffs. The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, located adjacent to the airport, manufactures Boeing 737 aircraft and uses the airport for their initial flights.
FLIGHT PROGRESS STRIP / CLEARANCE DELIVERY (JO 7110.65T - 2.3.2) = Thirty minutes prior to the aircraft´s proposed departure time, the Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC) HOCSR Flight Data Processor (FDP) checks the proposed IFR plan and determines whether any preferred departure routes (PDRs) or preferred arrival routes (PARs) apply to the particular aircraft then transmits an amended proposed flight plan to the nearest departure facility. This information is distributed to their Flight Data Input / Output (FDIO) system as well as printing a Flight Progress Strip (FPS) incase of computer system failure. This information is then decimated by clearance delivery where a departure control frequency and transponder code is determined. The first En Route controller providing separation services obtains a FPS notice shortly after ARTCCs computer systems identifies the aircraft´s transponder code and identification is transmitting. Secondarily Clearance Delivery controllers may manually enter the departure time into local FDIOs. Subsequent route controllers (low or high) receive updated flight progress strips approximately 15 to 30 minutes prior to the aircraft entering their sector.

RADAR FLIGHT FOLLOWING / VFR FLIGHT PLANS = The above information applies to IFR flight plans; however, this system can be utilized to assist VFR pilots in requesting radar flight following services prior to airport departure. During VFR flight planing via DUATS or directly with Flight Service Stations (FSS), a request to generate a "Flight Progress Strip for VFR Flight Following" is entered under the Remarks section 11 under the FAA Domestic Flight Planning form. Upon contact with FSS specialist prior to Clearance Delivery these requests are then processed via the ARTCC HOCSR FDP (see above). Upon contact with that nearest air traffic control center all the information is already established for your aircraft including transponder code and departure control frequency. The benefit in using this sequence of events is two fold. 1) it reduces ATC data entry workload prior to establishing flight following (more likely to grant the request), and 2) Reduction of miscommunication and pilot workload within the aircraft. As a tertiary benefit it also provides information to flight tracking services (web or application based) to track your VFR flights world wide.  Ohh the possibility to eliminate those 20 frantic voice mails from family members asking have you landed yet!
Megahertz (MHz)Aviation Description / Purpose
121.5Civil Emergency Frequency
122.0En Route Flight Advisory Service (FLIGHT WATCH) [7k-17.5k MSL]
122.2Common En Route Simplex Frequency [FSS]
123.6Local Airport Advisory [FSS]
122.750Aviation Air-to-Air Communication & VFR Corridors
122.775Air Shows & Air-to-Air Communication
122.80Unicom (Uncontrolled Airports)
122.85Multicom
122.95Unicom (Controlled Airports)
123.45Air-to-Air (Oceanic)
  
Megahertz (MHz)Frequency Descriptions
108.0 - 117.95VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR)
108.10 - 111.95Instrument Landing System (ILS)
108.10 - 111.95Simplified Directional Facility (SDF)
122.025 - 122.675Flight Service Stations
118.0 - 121.4Air Traffic Control (Towers/ARTCC's)
121.6 - 121.9Ground Control
122.025 - 122.675Flight Service Stations
121.5, 243.0, 406Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)
136.450, 136.475FISDL (VHF datalink) system
329.15 - 335.00UHF Glide Slope Transmitter
960 - 1215Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
962 - 1105MLS Precision Distance Measuring Equipment (DME/P)
978Universal Access Transceiver (UAT); Flight Information Service - Broadcast (FIS-B)
1090Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) [A, C, and S transponders]
1575.42Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)
5031 - 5091Microwave Landing System (MLS)
WASHINGTON STATE AIRPORT CAMERAS

Thank you for using WSDOT Aviation's Airport Web Cameras. Image updates for all cameras are set at 15 minutes. Not only do they provide pilots with a real-time snapshot of what’s going on at the airports, they also provide additional information being reported via an AWOS /ASOS. Weather reports are also available though the NOAA/NWS Web site.
Captain Scott Dove (B-747 pilot) thought it would be nice if there was a place anyone could ask a flying question without being chastised, a place where there was no such thing as a stupid flying question. This site provides the ability to post your aviation questions as-well-as providing demonstration videos that are both educational and entertaining.
Meteorological Aerodrome Report [UPDATED: Hourly]
[station code] [observation time] [wind direction and speed] [visibility] [specific observations]

Station code = The 4-digit station code (KDVT in our example) identifies the specific METAR station making the report.
Observation time = The first two digits are the day of the month. The next 4 are the time in UTC 24 hour format, followed by a Z to denote UTC.
Specific observations = The remainder of the METAR line varies depending on the observations being made.
Observation codes =
ACC Altocumulus castellanus clouds.
ACSL Altocumulus standing lenticular clouds.
AO1 Automated station without precipitation discriminator.
AO2 Automated station with precipitation discriminator.
BC Patches or broken. Always tied to another sky condition such as fog (FG).
BKN Broken clouds. Always followed by an altitude in feet. May be followed by a cloud type such as CB.
BL Blowing. Always tied to another condition such as snow (S) or sand (SA).
BR Mist.
CA Cloud-air lightning.
CB Cumulonimbus clouds. This is often tied to FEW or BKN.
CBMAM Cumulonimbus mammatus clouds.
CC Cloud-to-cloud lightning.
CCSL Cirrocumulus standing lenticular clouds.
CG Cloud-to-ground lightning.
CIG Ceiling exists - there is a ceiling at the lowest cloud layer
CLR Clear
COR This report is a correction to the previous report
DR Drifting. Always tied to a material.
DS Dust storm.
DSIPTG Dissipating.
DSNT Distant.
DU Dust
DZ Drizzle
FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS
    FAR 1.1 [CATEGORY] - [1] Certification, ratings, privileges, and limitations of AIRMEN, includes a broad 'classification' of aircraft; AIRPLANES, ROTORCRAFT, POWERED-LIFT, GLIDER, LIGHTER-THAN-AIR, WEIGHT-SHIFT-CONTROL, and POWERED PARACHUTE. [2] Certification of AIRCRAFT, includes a grouping of aircraft based upon intended use or 'operating limitations'; TRANSPORT, NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, LIMITED, RESTRICTED, and PROVISIONAL.
    FAR 1.1 [CLASS] - [1] Certification, ratings, privileges, and limitations of AIRMEN, within an aircraft category having similar operating 'characteristics'; SINGLE ENGINE LAND, SINGLE ENGINE SEA, MULTI-ENGINE LAND, MULTI-ENGINE SEA, GYROPLANES, HELICOPTERS, AIRSHIPS, and FREE BALLOONS. [2] Certification of AIRCRAFT, includes a broad grouping of aircraft having similar 'characteristics' of propulsion, flight, or landing; AIRPLANE, ROTORCRAFT, GLIDER, BALLOON, LANDPLANE, and SEAPLANE.
    FAR 61.31(e) - No person may act as pilot in command of an airplane that has a retractable landing gear, flaps, and a controllable pitch propeller, unless the person has received and logged ground and flight training from an authorized instructor in a complex airplane.
    FAR 61.31(f) - No person may act as pilot in command of an airplane with an engine of more than 200 horsepower, unless the person has received and logged ground and flight training from an authorized instructor in a high-performance airplane.
    FAR 61.57 - Night flight begins one hour after sunset and ends one hour before sunrise for the purposes of recent experience
    FAR 61.15 - A written report must be provided to the FAA Civil Aviation Security Division within 60 days if convicted of a DUI.
    FAR 91.7 - It is the pilot in command´s responsibility for determining that an aircraft is in condition for safe flight.
    FAR 91.15 - No pilot in command of a civil aircraft may allow any object to be dropped from that aircraft in flight that creates a hazard to persons or property. However, this section does not prohibit the dropping of any object if reasonable precautions are taken to avoid injury or damage to persons or property.
    FAR 91.103 - Each PIC shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available information concerning that flight: 1) Weather reports and forecasts 2) Fuel requirements 3) Alternatives if the planned flight cannot be completed 4) Any known traffic delays advised by ATC 5) Runway lengths at airports of intended use 6) Takeoff and landing distance factoring in airport elevation and runway slope, aircraft gross weight, and wind and temperature.
    FAR 91.123 - If a pilot is given priority by ATC in an emergency, a detailed report must be submitted if requested within 48 hours to the manager of that facility.
    FAR 91.155(b,c,d,2) [BASIC VFR WEATHER MINIMUMS] - No person may enter the traffic pattern of an airport, take off or land an aircraft, under VFR, within the lateral boundaries of the surface areas of Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace designated for an airport unless the ceiling is greater than 1,000ft AGL and ground visibility is greater than 3SM.
    FAR 91.157 [SPECIAL VFR WEATHER MINIMUMS] - Within Class D airspace at NIGHT: the aircraft and pilot must be certified for instrument flight.  Within Class D airspace during the DAY: the pilot needs 1 mile visibility and clear of clouds.
    FAR 91.205(b12) - If the aircraft is operated for hire over water and beyond power-off gliding distance from shore, approved flotation gear readily available to each occupant and, unless the aircraft is operating under part 121 of this subchapter, at least one pyrotechnic signaling device.
    FAR 91.205(c) - Are landing lights required for VFR night flying? Answer: NO, only if the aircraft is for hire is a single electric landing light required.
    FAR 91.211 - No person may operate a civil aircraft at a cabin pressure altitude above 15,000MSL unless each occupant is provided supplemental oxygen. Crew must use supplemental oxygen above 14,000MSL. Crew must use supplemental oxygen above 12,500 - 14,000MSL for any period longer than 30 minutes.
    FAR 91.303 - No person may operate an aircraft in acrobatic flight below an altitude of 1,500AGL
    FAR 91.403 - An owner / operator is primarily responsible for the airworthiness condition of an aircraft
    FAR 91.417 - Registered owner / operator must keep Aircraft Maintenance Records on status of all applicable Airworthiness Directives.
    FAR 91.509(a) - No person may take off in an airplane for a flight over water more than 50 nautical miles from the nearest shore unless that airplane is equipped with a life preserver or an approved flotation means for each occupant of the airplane.
(Left+Click link for MORE information)
ICAO INTERNATIONAL FLIGHT PLAN [FAA Form 7233-4] November 15th 2012

In 2012, the Item and Field contents of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Filed Flight Plan (FPL) and related messages were changed. Changes include:

Additional alphanumeric qualifiers in Item 10 (Equipment and Capabilities) that reflect enhancements to operational capabilities in ground-based and satellite-based navigation and surveillance equipment. The new qualifiers cover equipment for Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract (ADS-C), and Controller Pilot Data Link Future Air Navigation System (CPDLC-FANS), as well as, several other qualifier additions and deletions.

Significant changes to Item 18 (Other Information), including formatting, indicator definitions, specific grammar for special handling, and new Performance Based Navigation (PBN/) qualifiers for Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP).

Specific format for aerodromes not listed in the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP).

Delay (DLA), Change (CHG), Cancel (CNL) and Arrival (ARR) message formats.
AIRCRAFT INSPECTION

Instrument Flight Rules
    A - Altimeter / Pitot Static [24 Calendar Months]
    V - VOR Accuracy [30 Days]
Visual & Instrument Flight Rules
    1 - 100 hour [FAR 91.409 Rental/Instruction]
    A - Annual / Airworthiness Directives [12 Calendar Months]
    T - Transponder [24 Calendar Months]
    E - ELT [12 Calendar Months]
Aviation General Information
WEATHER SYMBOLS  -  METAR
AIRPORTS, AIRSPACE, TOPO, COMS
PHONETIC ALPHABET A-!
«» AIRSPACE OPERATIONS
AIRCRAFT V-SPEEDS
ABV A-E  -  ABV F-Z  -  ABV GTK
AIRCRAFT / AIRPORT
AVIATION DEFINITIONS
AVIATION COMMON Q&A
«» FAR43´s  -  FAR61-91´s  -  A/W/P´s

Aviation Acronyms and Mnemonics
IM SAFE  -  PAVE / CARE
ARROWS  -  RAW FAT
ANDS / NOSE / UNOS
SACrED WiNd  -  CoPS WARS
TOMATO FFLAMES A
FLAPS  -  GRAB CARDD
5T´s / FAME P  -  AV1ATE
CRAFTS  -  CIGARS / BLT
4C´s  -  GUMPS  -  PLease START
MC PRAWN  -  MID DLR
TURN PALE  -  P-FACTION

ATC Communications
«» ATC/PILOT PHRASES
AIRSPACE FREQUENCIES
GENERAL COMMUNICATION
CLASS D - FSS / ARTCC

FAA Notices / Safety Videos
RUNWAYS - LINEUP - FLT PLAN

FAA Certification Testing
GUIDES - TESTS - STANDARDS
CERTIFICATES - EXPERIENCE

WA - Airport Guide
FLY WA - CAMS - EP-AREA «»
BOEING FIELD - RENTON MUNI

Software Tools / Trainers
MORSE LEARNER
VOR SIMULATOR [TIM´s]
INSTRUMENT SIMULATORS
E6B CALCULATION - VOR/CDI

Aeronautic Training Videos
ASK CAPTAIN SCOTT

Incredible Aeronautic Moments
26 TURN FLAT SPIN
DEAD STICK TAKEOFF
Experimental GRIDDED LAMP Images
LAMP is a statistical system which provides forecast guidance for sensible weather elements. The LAMP system was originally designed to update the NGM MOS by using the most recent surface observations, simple locally run model output, and the NGM MOS guidance itself. This system was implemented at the National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFO) in the late 1990's.
LAMP has now been redeveloped to update the more modern GFS MOS guidance. The current status is that LAMP updates GFS MOS on an hourly basis, is run on National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) computers and disseminated centrally from NCEP, and provides guidance for over 1500 stations as well as thunderstorm guidance on a 20-km grid out to 25 hours.

FORECAST: Ceiling Height (hundreds of feet), Total Sky Coverage, Wind Direction & Speed.
Global Forecast System (GFS)
A global numerical weather prediction system containing a global computer model and variational analysis run by the NWS. This mathematical model is run four times a day and produces forecasts up to 16 days in advance, but with decreasing spatial and temporal resolution over time
ACTIVE WEATHER MAP
WSI has the world´s largest commercial meteorological database, incorporating U.S. National Weather Service, U.S. military, Canadian, British, and Japanese governments, other international agencies, and commercial vendors. WSI has extensive data collection facilities for NEXRAD, satellite, NWP models, lightning, and other meteorological data. NEXRAD data received via the NWS Central Radar Distribution System and also through NOAAport as a redundant path. To support the volume of inbound data needed to create the variety of products supplied by WSI, WSI manages 21 on-site satellite dishes.
EXTENDED FORECAST
WSI has the world´s largest commercial meteorological database, incorporating U.S. National Weather Service, U.S. military, Canadian, British, and Japanese governments, other international agencies, and commercial vendors. WSI has extensive data collection facilities for NEXRAD, satellite, NWP models, lightning, and other meteorological data. NEXRAD data received via the NWS Central Radar Distribution System and also through NOAAport as a redundant path. To support the volume of inbound data needed to create the variety of products supplied by WSI, WSI manages 21 on-site satellite dishes.
HOURLY FORECAST
WSI has the world´s largest commercial meteorological database, incorporating U.S. National Weather Service, U.S. military, Canadian, British, and Japanese governments, other international agencies, and commercial vendors. WSI has extensive data collection facilities for NEXRAD, satellite, NWP models, lightning, and other meteorological data. NEXRAD data received via the NWS Central Radar Distribution System and also through NOAAport as a redundant path. To support the volume of inbound data needed to create the variety of products supplied by WSI, WSI manages 21 on-site satellite dishes.
SEVERE WEATHER MAP: WATCHES & WARNINGS
AccuWeather, established in 1962, is the World´s Weather Authority. Providing local forecasts for everywhere in the United States and over two million locations worldwide. Providing our products and services to more than 175,000 paying customers in media, business, government and institutions. Headquartered in State College, PA, is home to the greatest number of forecast meteorologists in one location anywhere in the world.
FORECAST MAPS
AccuWeather, established in 1962, is the World´s Weather Authority. Providing local forecasts for everywhere in the United States and over two million locations worldwide. Providing our products and services to more than 175,000 paying customers in media, business, government and institutions. Headquartered in State College, PA, is home to the greatest number of forecast meteorologists in one location anywhere in the world.
WEATHER MAPS
AccuWeather, established in 1962, is the World´s Weather Authority. Providing local forecasts for everywhere in the United States and over two million locations worldwide. Providing our products and services to more than 175,000 paying customers in media, business, government and institutions. Headquartered in State College, PA, is home to the greatest number of forecast meteorologists in one location anywhere in the world.
ENHANCED SATELLITE
AccuWeather, established in 1962, is the World´s Weather Authority. Providing local forecasts for everywhere in the United States and over two million locations worldwide. Providing our products and services to more than 175,000 paying customers in media, business, government and institutions. Headquartered in State College, PA, is home to the greatest number of forecast meteorologists in one location anywhere in the world.
WEATHER RADAR
AccuWeather, established in 1962, is the World´s Weather Authority. Providing local forecasts for everywhere in the United States and over two million locations worldwide. Providing our products and services to more than 175,000 paying customers in media, business, government and institutions. Headquartered in State College, PA, is home to the greatest number of forecast meteorologists in one location anywhere in the world.
The Experimental Aviation Digital Data Service (ADDS), showcases new aviation weather products, innovative visualizations, and data services. ADDS is a free public service produced by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) with funding provided by the FAA's Aviation Weather Research Program (AWRP) and the NextGen Network Enabled Weather (NNEW) program.

STUDENT PILOTS: This tool will defiantly assist you with your Go-No-Go decision based on VFR Weather Minimums and Flight Planning.
This java application was designed to assist flights for Helicopter Emergency Medical Services. It features ceiling and visibility data, base and reflective radar tools, convection data, high resolution GIS Data, and saved views. This tool has been designed and focused on low altitude flying information and is a perfect tool for disseminating VFR, MVFR, IFR, and LIFR flight conditions outside of primary controlled airspaces [B,C,D].
    FAA Definitions:
  • Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) = ceiling is less than 1,000ft AGL [and/or] visibility less than 3 miles.
  • Visual Flight Rules (VFR) = ceiling is greater than or equal to 1,000ft [and] visibility greater than or equal to 3 miles.
    HEMS Categories:
  • VFR (blue) = ceilings greater than 3,000ft AGL [and] visibility greater than 5 miles.
  • MVFR (green) = ceilings between 3,000 to 1,000ft AGL [and/or] visibility between 5 to 3 miles.
  • IFR (red) = ceilings between 1,000 to 500ft AGL [and/or] visibility between 3 to 1 mile.
  • LIFR (magenta) = ceilings below 500ft AGL [and/or] visibility less than 1 mile.

QUICK SAVE: [[View]]»[Save View (Name)] then [[View]]»[Default View (Select Name)]
Java 7 Update 25 [Highly Recommended]
The Experimental Aviation Digital Data Service (ADDS), showcases new aviation weather products, innovative visualizations, and data services. ADDS is a free public service produced by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) with funding provided by the FAA's Aviation Weather Research Program (AWRP) and the NextGen Network Enabled Weather (NNEW) program.

This is the most comprehensive tool available. It provides all of the features and datasets of the other tools and more! It displays icing, turbulence, ceiling, visibility, temperature, winds, humidity, radar, satellite, AIRMETs, PIREPs, METARs, and TAFs. All 3D data are shown both horizontally and vertically and can be animated in time. The Flight Path Tool lets you create vertical cross-sections along your flight route. It also allows you to see meteorograms of observed and forecasted conditions for any surface station.

QUICK SAVE: [[View]]»[Save View (Name)] then [[View]]»[Default View (Select Name)]
Java 7 Update 25 [Highly Recommended]
CSC DUATS on the Web provides immediate on-line access to U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved information including: Current, continuously updated weather information, Easy-to-understand plain language weather, Flight plan filing and closing, Automated flight planning, QICP Information. Free access to CSC DUATS is available to U.S. pilots and student pilots who hold current medical certificates, flight instructors without current medicals, aviation ground instructors, glider/balloon pilots and other approved users in the U.S. aviation community.
TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS (TFR)
is a type of Notices to Airmen (NOTAM). A TFR defines an area restricted to air travel due to a hazardous condition, a special event, or a general warning for the entire FAA airspace. The text of the actual TFR contains the fine points of the restriction.
TERMINAL PROCEDURES PUBLICATION
The TPP is a 26 volume set of printed paper books containing Instrument Approach Procedure charts (IAP), Departure Procedure charts (DP), Standard Terminal Arrival charts (STAR), and Airport Diagrams. Also included are Take-Off, Radar, and Alternate Minima textual procedures. d -TPP is a presentation of the same data as the TPP only in a digital format. Each single page chart as listed above is presented in d -TPP as an individual PDF file. The minima textual data are presented as multi-page PDFs covering the minimum sections of each of the 26 printed TPP volumes.
AIRPORT/FACILITY DIRECTORY
The A/FD is a 7 volume set plus Alaska and Pacific Territories of printed paper books containing data on public and joint use airports, seaplane bases heliports, VFR airport sketches, NAVAIDs, communications data, weather data sources, airspace, special notices, and operational procedures. The seven volumes cover the conterminous United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The Airport/Facility Directory includes data that cannot be readily depicted in graphic form: e.g., airport hours of operation, types of fuel available, runway data, lighting codes, etc.
VFR TERMINAL AREA RASTER AERONAUTICAL CHARTS
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Terminal Area Raster Chart series is designed to meet the needs of users who require georeferenced raster images of FAA Visual Flight Rules,(VFR) 1:250,000 scale Terminal Area Charts (TAC). A raster Terminal Area Chart is a scanned image of an FAA Terminal Area Chart.
SECTIONAL RASTER AERONAUTICAL CHARTS
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Sectional Raster Aeronautical Chart series is designed to meet the needs of users who require georeferenced raster images of FAA Visual Flight Rules (VFR) sectional charts. A raster sectional aeronautical chart is a scanned image of an FAA sectional chart.
WORLD RASTER AERONAUTICAL CHARTS
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) world raster aeronautical chart series is designed to meet the needs of users who require georeferenced raster images of FAA visual flight rules world charts. A raster world aeronautical chart is a scanned image of an FAA world chart.
IFR ENROUTE AERONAUTICAL CHARTS (LOW, HIGH, AREA)
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) IFR Enroute Aeronautical Chart series is designed to meet the needs of users who require a digital version chart.
RunwayFinder is a flight planning resource for U.S. pilots, showing current weather conditions for airports in an area at a glance displayed on seamless sectional and terminal charts. In addition, routes, range circles, and temporary flight restrictions (TFRs) can be plotted. This site is for information purposes only. Official FAA-sanctioned sources should be consulted prior to flight. The charts have been transformed from their original projection to match the Mercator projection of Google Maps. Distances and great circle paths are not preserved. The charts should not be used for navigation.
SkyVector.com was founded in 2005 by a web developer who was learning to fly. Since then it has grown in popularity to become the number one internet destination for aeronautical charts. SkyVector is not an official source of flight information and should not be used for navigation.
FAA Information, Airport Operations, Airport Communications, Nearby Radio Navigation Aids, Airport Services, Runway Information, Airport Ownership and Management from official FAA records, Airport Operational Statistics
For over 75 years, Jeppesen have been helping aviation professionals worldwide reach their destinations safely and efficiently. Today, we build on those roots by offering an ever-expanding array of innovative informational products, services, and software—not only to our air transportation partners, but also to a growing lineup of sea and land transportation partners. Flight weather for the aviation professional and enthusiast for over 20 years. Our weather maps combine the latest data from National Weather Service, NEXRAD radar mosaics, and GOES Satellite imagery, along with analyses and forecasts from our staff of professional aviation meteorologists.
[D (60-67)] Airmen; [E (71-77)] Airspace; [F (91-105)] Air Traffic and General Operating Rules;
[G (119-139)] Air Carriers and Operators for Compensation or Hire: Certification and Operations

Justia is focused on making legal information, resources and services easy to find on the Internet. The company provides Internet users with free case law, codes, regulations, legal articles and legal blog databases, as well as community resources. Justia works with educational, public interest and other socially focused organizations to bring legal and consumer information to the online community. The Justia team is comprised of computer scientists, lawyers, librarians and marketing professionals with over 100 years of legal online and engineering development experience.
[A (01-03)] Definitions; [B (11-17)] Procedural Rules; [C (21-49)] Aircraft
Justia is focused on making legal information, resources and services easy to find on the Internet. The company provides Internet users with free case law, codes, regulations, legal articles and legal blog databases, as well as community resources. Justia works with educational, public interest and other socially focused organizations to bring legal and consumer information to the online community. The Justia team is comprised of computer scientists, lawyers, librarians and marketing professionals with over 100 years of legal online and engineering development experience.
AIRCRAFT RADIO SERVICE (47 CFR Part 87)
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent United States government agency. The FCC was established by the Communications Act of 1934 and is charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable. The FCC´s jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. possessions.
You must obtain an FCC Aircraft Radio Station License [FCC CORES: AC - Aircraft]
if you make international flights or communicate with foreign stations

Form FCC 605 - Schedule C, is a supplementary schedule for use with the FCC Quick-Form Application for Authorization in the Ship, Aircraft, Amateur, Restricted and Commercial Operator, and the General Mobile Radio Services. This schedule is used to supply information for authorizations in the Aircraft Radio Service (Part 87). The FCC 605 Main Form must be filed in conjunction with this schedule.
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA´s) major roles and responsibilities: Regulating civil aviation to promote safety, Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology, Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft, Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics, Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation, Regulating U.S. commercial space transportation
Founded in March of 2005, FlightAware was the first company to offer free flight tracking services for both private and commercial air traffic in the United States. FlightAware launched public operations in late 2005 and quickly became the most popular flight tracking service in the world. FlightAware provides live flight data, airport information, weather maps, flight planning, and navigation charts, as well as aviation news and photos to over two million users a month. FlightAware also powers operational management and dispatch software, airport flight information displays (FIDS), and provides reporting data to aircraft and airport operators.
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration does not publish a list of "approved" medications for pilots. However, FAR 61.53, 67.113, 67.213, 67.313 and 91.17 preclude flying while having a condition or taking a medication that might affect flight safety. The following link contains medication information specific for Air Traffic Control duty (note that even if allowed for ATCS duty, medication use must be reported to the Regional Flight Surgeon before return to controlling). Consult a AMAS physician if you have a question about a specific medication or need a full explanation of the current FAA policy.
ADVANCED AVIONICS HANDBOOK
The Advanced Avionics Handbook is a new publication designed to provide general aviation users with comprehensive information on advanced avionics equipment available in technically advanced aircraft. This handbook introduces the pilot to flight operations in aircraft with the latest integrated "glass cockpit" advanced avionics systems.
AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION MANUAL
This manual is designated to provide the aviation community with basic flight information and ATC procedures for use in the National Airspace System (NAS) of the United States. An international version called the Aeronautical Information Publication contains parallel information, as well as specific information on the international airports for use by the international community. This manual contains the fundamentals required in order to fly in the United States NAS. It also contains items of interest to pilots concerning health and medical facts, factors affecting flight safety, a pilot/controller glossary of terms used in the ATC System, and information on safety, accident, and hazard reporting.
  • Chapter 01 - Introduction To Flying
  • Chapter 02 - Aircraft Structure
  • Chapter 03 - Principles of Flight
  • Chapter 04 - Aerodynamics of Flight
  • Chapter 05 - Flight Controls
  • Chapter 06 - Aircraft Systems
  • Chapter 07 - Flight Instruments
  • Chapter 08 - Flight Manuals and Other Documents
  • Chapter 09 - Weight and Balance
  • Chapter 10 - Aircraft Performance
  • Chapter 11 - Weather Theory
  • Chapter 12 - Aviation Weather Services
  • Chapter 13 - Airport Operations
  • Chapter 14 - Airspace
  • Chapter 15 - Navigation
  • Chapter 16 - Aeromedical Factors
  • Chapter 17 - Aeronautical Decision-Making
AIR QUALITY HANDBOOK
This handbook is a comprehensive guide intended to assist the air quality analyst/environmental specialist in assessing the air quality impact of Federal Aviation Administration and the United States Air Force actions at airports and air bases. It provides guidance, procedures and methodologies for use in carrying out such assessments.
AVIATION INSTRUCTOR´S HANDBOOK
Designed for ground instructors, flight instructors, and aviation maintenance instructors, the Aviation Instructor´s Handbook was developed by the Flight Standards Service, Airman Testing Standards Branch, in cooperation with aviation educators and industry to help beginning instructors understand and apply the fundamentals of instruction. This handbook provides aviation instructors with up-to-date information on learning and teaching, and how to relate this information to the task of teaching aeronautical knowledge and skills to students. Experienced aviation instructors will also find the updated information useful for improving their effectiveness in training activities. While this handbook primarily uses the traditional term "student" to denote someone who is seeking certification in aviation, the accepted term in educational psychology is "learners."
BANNER TOW OPERATIONS
This publication is presented as an information guide for banner tow operations, to promote safe operations through careful preparation and planning. For preparation and planning, administrative concerns are also addressed.
INSTRUMENT FLYING HANDBOOK
This Instrument Flying Handbook is designed for use by instrument flight instructors and pilots preparing for instrument rating tests. Instructors may find this handbook a valuable training aid as it includes basic reference material for knowledge testing and instrument flight training. This handbook conforms to pilot training and certification concepts established by the FAA. There are different ways of teaching, as well as performing, flight procedures and maneuvers and many variations in the explanations of aerodynamic theories and principles. This handbook adopts selected methods and concepts for instrument flying. The discussion and explanations reflect the most commonly used practices and principles. All of the aeronautical knowledge and skills required to operate in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) are detailed. Chapters are dedicated to human and aerodynamic factors affecting instrument flight, the flight instruments, attitude instrument flying for airplanes, basic flight maneuvers used in IMC, attitude instrument flying for helicopters, navigation systems, the National Airspace System (NAS), the air traffic control (ATC) system, instrument flight rules (IFR) flight procedures, and IFR emergencies. Clearance shorthand and an integrated instrument lesson guide are also included.
INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES HANDBOOK
Designed as a technical reference for professional pilots who operate under instrument flight rules (IFR) in the National Airspace System (NAS). It expands on information contained in the FAA-H-8083-15, Instrument Flying Handbook, and introduces advanced information for IFR operations. Instrument flight instructors, instrument pilots, and instrument students will also find this handbook a valuable resource since it is used as a reference for the Airline Transport Pilot and Instrument Knowledge Tests and for the Practical Test Standards. It also provides detailed coverage of instrument charts and procedures including IFR takeoff, departure, en route, arrival, approach, and landing. Safety information covering relevant subjects such as runway incursion, land and hold short operations, controlled flight into terrain, and human factors issues also are included.
INTERNATIONAL FLIGHT INFORMATION MANUAL
is an on-line pre-flight and planning guide for use by U.S. non-scheduled operators and business and private aviators flying outside of the United States. Planning guidance also is provided for international flights entering, exiting, and operating in the U.S. airspace. The accuracy and currency of information for some of the countries contained in this guide is uncertain due to the difficulty in obtaining the information and the rapidly changing world environment. Because the Federal Aviation Administration has not been able to verify the information provided by sources in other countries, aviators should always check with a country's aviation authority or a local aviation handler when planning a trip outside of the United States.
PILOT SAFETY BROCHURES
Pilot Safety Brochures are prepared for both general aviation and commercial pilots.
  • Acceleration in Aviation: G-Force
  • Alcohol and Flying: A Deadly Combination
  • Altitude-Induced Decompression Sickness
  • Aviation Safety Courses for Civil Aviation Pilots
  • Carbon Monoxide: A Deadly Menace
  • Circadian Rhythm Disruption and Flying
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis & Travel
  • Fatigue in Aviation
  • Fit For Flight
  • Hearing and Noise in Aviation
  • Hypoxia: The Higher You Fly...The Less Air In The Sky
  • Information for Pilots Considering Laser Eye Surgery
  • Laser Hazards in Navigable Airspace
  • Medical Certification Questions and Answers
  • Medications and Flying
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  • Oxygen Equipment Use in General Aviation Operations
  • Pilot Medical Certification Information for the Aviation Community
  • Pilot Vision
  • Seat Belts & Shoulder Harnesses: Smart Protection in Small Airplanes
  • Smoke
  • Spatial Disorientation: Why You Shouldn´t Fly By the Seat of Your Pants
  • Sunglasses for Pilots: Beyond the Image
PILOT´S HANDBOOK OF AERONAUTICAL KNOWLEDGE
The Pilot´s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge provides basic knowledge that is essential for pilots. This handbook introduces pilots to the broad spectrum of knowledge that will be needed as they progress in their pilot training. Except for the Code of Federal Regulations pertinent to civil aviation, most of the knowledge areas applicable to pilot certification are presented. This handbook is useful to beginning pilots, as well as those pursuing more advanced pilot certificates. It is essential for persons using this handbook to become familiar with and apply the pertinent parts of 14 CFR and the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM).
PLANE SENSE / GENERAL AVIATION INFORMATION
introduces aircraft owners and operators, or prospective aircraft owners and operators, to basic information about the requirements involved in acquiring, owning, operating, and maintaining a private aircraft. This handbook can be a valuable reference tool for anyone who would like to review the "nuts and bolts" of aircraft ownership. Aircraft owners and operators, or anyone considering aircraft ownership, should be familiar with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR), which details regulations for aircraft owners, operators, pilots, aircraft mechanics, and maintenance providers. Since the requirements can be updated and the regulations can change, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recommends that you contact your nearest FAA Flight Standards District Office (FSDO), where the personnel can assist you with the various requirements for aircraft ownership, operation, and maintenance. The FAA has also added information for aviation enthusiasts who own (or are interested in owning) lightsport aircraft, a new and evolving sector of the general aviation marketplace. This handbook highlights regulations and regulatory guidance material, as well as providing advice regarding where to locate answers to your questions. While Plane Sense cannot cover every issue faced by aircraft owners and operators, this handbook is intended to be a useful guide and will help you locate the resources to assist you.
RISK MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK
This handbook is a tool designed to help recognize and manage risk. It provides a higher level of training to the pilot in command (PIC) who wishes to aspire to a greater understanding of the aviation environment and become a better pilot. This handbook is for pilots of all aircraft from Weight-Shift Control (WSC) to a Piper Cub, a Twin Beechcraft, or a Boeing 747. A pilot´s continued interest in building skills is paramount for safe flight and can assist in rising above the challenges which face pilots of all backgrounds.
SYSTEM SAFETY HANDBOOK
was developed for the use of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) employees, supporting contractors and any other entities that are involved in applying system safety policies and procedures throughout FAA. As the Federal agency with primary responsibility for civil aviation safety, the FAA develops and applies safety techniques and procedures in a wide range of activities from NAS modernization, to air traffic control, and aircraft certification. On June 28, 1998, the FAA Administrator issued Order 8040.4 to establish FAA safety risk management policy. This policy requires all the Lines of Business (LOB) of the FAA to establish and implement a formal risk management program consistent with the LOB´s role in the FAA. The policy reads in part: "The FAA shall use a formal, disciplined, and documented decision making process to address safety risks in relation to high-consequence decisions impacting the complete life cycle." This handbook is intended to support system safety and safety risk management throughout the FAA. It does not supercede regulations, or other procedures or policies; however, this handbook provides best practices in system safety engineering and management. When these regulations or procedures exist, this handbook will indicate the reference and direct the reader to that document. If a conflict exists between the SSH and FAA policies and regulations, the policies and regulations supercede this document. However, if results of analysis using the tools and techniques in this SSH identify policy or regulatory issues that conflict with existing FAA policies and regulations, the issues should be brought to the attention of the Office of System Safety (ASY), and consideration should be given to changing the policy or regulation. This handbook is also intended to provide guidance to FAA contractors who support the FAA by providing systems and/or analyses. This handbook does not supercede the specific contract, but can be referenced in the statement of work or other documents as a guide.
STUDENT PILOT GUIDE
This publication is intended to serve as a guide for prospective student pilots and for those already engaged in flight training. This guide presents in "how to" fashion, general procedures for obtaining FAA student pilot, sport pilot, recreational pilot, and private pilot certificates. There are many references to FAA Flight Standards District Offices (FSDOs) and through the FSDOs, contact is maintained between the FAA and the general aviation public. The FAA inspectors at your local FSDO are professionally trained and are prepared to advise and assist you toward reaching your goal as a pilot.
PILOT/CONTROLLER GLOSSARY
This Glossary was compiled to promote a common understanding of the terms used in the Air Traffic Control system. It includes those terms which are intended for pilot/controller communications. Those terms most frequently used in pilot/controller communications are printed in bold italics. The definitions are primarily defined in an operational sense applicable to both users and operators of the National Airspace System. Use of the Glossary will preclude any misunderstandings concerning the system’s design, function, and purpose.
GENERAL AVIATION PILOT´S GUIDE
The abundance of weather information available to today´s pilots can make it difficult to screen out non-essential data, focus on key facts, and correctly evaluate the risk from a given set of circumstances. This Guide uses the Perceive Process Perform framework to help general aviation (GA) pilots develop skills in obtaining appropriate weather information, interpreting the data in the context of a specific flight, and applying the information and analysis to make safe weather flying decisions. The goal is to: Perceive weather hazards that could adversely affect your flight. Process this information to evaluate risk and identify options. Perform by acting to mitigate or eliminate the risk.
The guide is organized by the three phases of flight: Pre-Flight, In-Flight, Post-Flight.
Dave Pascoe originally launched LiveATC.net as a small place on the web to share live air traffic communications from Boston's Logan Airport. Since then it has grown rapidly and become a popular resource for those who enjoy listening to and talking about Air Traffic Control (ATC)...aviation enthusiasts, student pilots, student air traffic controllers, flight simulation enthusiasts, FBO operators, airline operators, and just about anyone with an interest in aviation communications. It's even used by nervous flyers who want to simply get a peek into a world they don't normally get to experience (unless they're already flying on United Airlines and listening to Channel 9). LiveATC.net, a listener - and advertising - supported site, is growing rapidly and is obsessed with providing live ATC radio traffic from every corner of the world.
RUNWAY SAFETY - PUBLICATIONS
The following products are produced by the FAA’s Runway Safety Office and other international aviation safety organizations.
  • Focus on Hot Spots
  • ICAO Runway Safety Manual
  • 2009 Annual Runway Safety Report
  • 2009 - 2011 National Runway Safety Plan
  • A Pilot's Guide to Safe Surface Operations
  • Communications A Key Component
  • GAO Report on Runway Safety Sept. 2008
  • Pilot Guide to Airport Signs and Markings: Airport Signs - Action or Purpose (Jun 2009)
  • Do You Know Your SIGNS & Markings? Placement (Apr 2009)
  • Airport Sign and Marking - Quick Reference Guide
  • RUNWAY SAFETY ALERT (14 CFR Part 91.129(i) – “Taxi to”)
  • Preventing Wrong Runway Departures (Sept. 2009)
Flightwise is the most advanced free flight tracker on the Internet. Quickly access tracking data for any aircraft or flight on an IFR flight plan with a fast, efficient interface that lets you get to the information you need quickly. Pull up detailed specifics on any of the last 10 flights, or subscribe to our premium flight tracking services for access to our long-term archives with data from as early as November of 2001. Track single flights or entire fleets. Free flight planning engine allows users to quickly create and access flight plans online. Store them online and file them whenever you're ready; print out approach charts, get aviation weather including textual Digital ATIS, and you're ready for takeoff.
Center Weather Service Unit Map [CWSU]
Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts [TAFS] & Meteorological Aerodrome Report [METARS]

CWSU meteorologists provide formal weather briefings to FAA supervisors within the Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) for the day and evening shifts. Verbal briefings are given to individual controllers at the ARTCC and tower control facilities, as well as to equipment technicians when weather conditions dictate. Two types of written products are also provided by the CWSU meteorologists. The Meteorological Impact Statement (MIS) is a 4 to 12 hour planning forecast of weather conditions expected to impact the air traffic. The Center Weather Advisory (CWA) is a short-term warning of hazardous weather conditions provided to all aviation interests, including private pilots, towers, flight service stations, and commercial airlines. Thus, a CWA is similar to but more localized than Airmets and Sigmets issued by the Aviation Weather Center (AWC) in Kansas City, Missouri.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a federal agency focused on the condition of the oceans and the atmosphere. It encompasses the Aviation Digital Data Service (ADDS) that makes available to the aviation community text, digital and graphical forecasts, analyses, and observations of realtime aviation-related weather variables.
A new online source of VFR and IFR seamless aeronautical charts, Airport / Facility Directory, and other aviation data. The UI is fairly spartan at the moment, but we plan on adding more features over time, starting with real-time weather updates and instrument approach plates. We paid special attention to getting this site work well in mobile browsers. Try us on your Android phone, iPhone, or iPad (or click here to see some screenshots). For help and to learn more about the features of this site, please see the help page. Remember to always consult official FAA sources for flight planning. While we do our best to keep information on vfrmap.com accurate and up-to-date, this site is no substitute for paper charts or proper preflight briefings.
This database provides you with all Airworthiness Directives (ADs) issued by the FAA which are still in effect -- some date back to the 1940's. You can quickly view recently published data in this database. ADs can be searched by any word or group of words; or viewed by Number or Make. It is also possible to view historical AD information to see old or cancelled ADs. Note: To ensure you get accurate results when searching for a list of applicable AD's on a particular aircraft model, also search against the installed engine, propeller, and appliances. In addition, view the "All [product] models" or "[product] Series (All)" (i.e. 777 Series (All)) listings to determine if there are any other ADs that apply to your product.
This database is a searchable repository of all aviation safety Advisory Circulars (ACs). You can look at the most current ACs by their AC Number, or Regulatory Part Number (CFR, CAR...). It is also possible to view historical AC information to see old or cancelled ACs.
Localized Aviation Model Output Statistics Program [LAMP]
LAMP is a statistical system which provides forecast guidance for sensible weather elements. The LAMP system was originally designed to update the NGM MOS by using the most recent surface observations, simple locally run model output, and the NGM MOS guidance itself. This system was implemented at the National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFO) in the late 1990's.
LAMP has now been redeveloped to update the more modern GFS MOS guidance. The current status is that LAMP updates GFS MOS on an hourly basis, is run on National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) computers and disseminated centrally from NCEP, and provides guidance for over 1500 stations as well as thunderstorm guidance on a 20-km grid out to 25 hours.

LOOPING FORECAST: Ceiling Height (hundreds of feet), Visibility, Temperature, Temperature Error, Dew Point, Dew Point Error.
LOCALIZED WEATHER - Outlook, Radar, Forecast & Information
In the early days of television, meteorologists used magnetic chalkboards to show viewers the weather conditions. Presenting a forecast meant moving magnets around the board, then drawing frontal boundaries and temperatures by hand. This method was the standard for broadcasting weather, even into the '60s and '70s.  In 1974, an enterprising meteorologist in Madison, Wisconsin suggested that computer technology might be useful in the forecasting business. Terry Kelly and his collaborator bought an Apple II, and their company, Weather Central, ushered in a new era of computerized weather information.  Weather Central continues to innovate in the broadcasting arena, and now brings MyWeather.com directly to you.
Our approach  What makes our approach to online weather different?
  • Personalization. Save the locations you care about most.
  • Customized alerts. Get the severe weather notifications you choose,
    for your exact position, sent the way you prefer (SMS, smartphone, desktop).
  • Immediacy. We don't waste your time – weather is front and center.
  • Portability. Sync your settings with our iPhone, Android and desktop apps (coming soon).
  • Detail. Our patented approach to hourly forecasts includes an animated map with frame-by-frame specifics.
  • Dependability. We give you accurate, informative forecasts for anywhere
    on Earth, and we've earned the trust of meteorologists worldwide.
We created our technology and have the patents to show for it. MyWeather.com forecasts are uniquely our own—most other sites just repackage the same government weather data. We statistically verify our data every day. Weather forecasting is an art, but we bolster it with our science.  Why? Because we know weather affects your life, from what you wear to where you travel. You can count on MyWeather.com to be your weather advisor.
RunwayFinder is a flight planning resource for U.S. pilots, showing current weather conditions for airports in an area at a glance displayed on seamless sectional and terminal charts. In addition, routes, range circles, and temporary flight restrictions (TFRs) can be plotted. The satellite view allows a pilot to see the layout of the runways, taxiways, and buildings (depending on the quality of the satellite images) before arriving at the airport. The age of the satellite images varies widely and changes periodically. Don't be surprised if some things have changed. A chart data view has been added to Google Map's default views to show aeronautical chart information such as obstructions and special use airspace.
NOTICES TO AIRMEN PUBLICATION
The main references for changes to the National Airspace System (NAS) are the Aeronautical Charts and the Airport/Facility Directories (AFD). Most changes to the NAS meeting NOTAM criteria are known sufficiently in advance to be carried in these publications. When this cannot be done, changes are carried in the Notices to Airmen publication (NTAP) and/or the Service A telecommunications system as a NOTAM D item.
  • Section 1, Airway NOTAMs
  • Section 2, Airports/Facilities & Procedural NOTAMs
  • Section 3, FDC General NOTAMs
AIRMEN CERTIFICATION BRANCH
Effective March 5, 2008, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) requires the following certificate holders who operate internationally to have a certificate stating that the holder is proficient in the use of the English language: Private, commercial, and Airline Transport Pilots with powered aircraft ratings, Flight engineers and flight navigators, and Control tower operators. The ability to read, speak, write, and understand English is already a U.S. regulatory eligibility requirement; the FAA Registry began issuing all new certificates with this endorsement on February 11, 2008. The U.S. has notified ICAO that it filed a difference that will extend the U.S. compliance date until March 5, 2009, in order to provide sufficient time for all affected U.S. airman certificate holders to comply with the ICAO Language Proficiency airman certificate endorsement requirements. Certificates that are ordered as regular replacement certificates will include the endorsement. You can order a replacement certificate on-line or by mail. You will be asked to register with Online Services if you don't already have an on-line account. Note that there is a $2 fee for replacement airmen certificates.

Change your address, Order a replacement certificate, Remove SSN as certificate number, Request temporary authority to exercise certificate privileges, Request verification of certificate privileges, Get notices of FAA safety meetings via email
COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATOR, RESTRICTED RADIOTELEPHONE, AND
RESTRICTED RADIOTELEPHONE-LIMITED USE RADIO SERVICES (47 CFR Part 13)
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent United States government agency. The FCC was established by the Communications Act of 1934 and is charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable. The FCC´s jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. possessions.
At least one person on each aircraft flying or communicating internationally
must have a Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit
[FCC CORES: RR - Restricted Operator]

This requirement is in addition to the requirement to have an aircraft radio station license for the aircraft. No Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit is required to operate VHF radio equipment on board an aircraft when that aircraft is flown domestically. You may obtain a Restricted Permit using FCC Form 605. No test is required to obtain this permit. The FCC will mail the permit to you and it will be valid for your lifetime. The fee for a Restricted Permit is in addition to any fee paid for an aircraft license. The FCC 605 Main Form must be filed in conjunction with this schedule.
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE (SUA)
provides a source to display airspace closure information providing scheduling data for Special Use Airspace (SUAs) and Military Training Routes (MTRs).
U.S. & Territories Airport Lookup
All data is provided by National Airspace System Resources (NASR). This official FAA resource provides extensive airport information [Airport Operations, Airport Contacts, General Remarks, Airport Communications, Radio AIDS To Navigation, Weather Data Services, Runways, & Heliports].
FAA Airport Diagrams
Airport Diagrams are specifically designed to assist in the movement of ground traffic at locations with complex runway/taxiway configurations at towered airports and provide information for updating geodetic position navigational systems aboard aircraft. Airport Diagrams can also be found in back of the Airport/Facilities Directories.
Continental United States - Enhanced Radar Image Loop
The National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its territories, adjacent waters and ocean areas, for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy.
General Weather Information
«» TAFS / METARS   LAMP / GLMP / GFS   CONUS   - NOAA / NWS
MyWeather - Weather Map   Current Radar   Outlook   10 day Forecast - Weather Central LP
AccuWeather - Forecast   Current   Satellite   Radar   Severe Weather - AccuWeather Inc
Intellicast - Active Weather Map   Extended   Hourly - Weather Services International
Jeppesen - International Aviation Weather Maps - Jeppesen a Boeing Company

VFR Weather Planning - METARS, TAFS, PIREPS, NOTAMS, TFRS
«»  FAA - TFR   SUA / MTR   NOTAM / NTAP - Federal Aviation Administration
«» CSC DUATS - Direct User Access Terminal Service - Computer Sciences Corporation
VFR Weather Information ADDS - Helicopter Emergency Medical Service v1.4 [Java 7u45+] - NCAR
VFR Flight Planning ADDS - Flight Path Tool v2.2.8 [Java 7u45+] - NCAR

Charts, Facility Directory, Terminal Procedures
«» APD  A/FD  TPP  TAC  SAC  WAC  EAC - Federal Aviation Administration
RunwayFinder - Seamless Aeronautical Charts - RunwayFinder, LLC
VFRMAP - Digital Aeronautical Charts - Digital Aviation LLC
SkyVector - Online Aeronautical Charts - SkyVector

Airport Information, Navigation, Operation, Communications
LiveATC - Air Traffic Control Audio [FLASH, JAVA, MP3, WMP] - LiveATC.net
«» FAA - National Flight Data Center Aeronautical Data - Federal Aviation Administration
AirNav - Airport, Navaid, Fix Information Directory - AirNav, LLC

Flight Reference and Regulations
FAA - Title 14, Chapter I, Part 60-139; Subchapter D,E,F,G - Justia.com
AAH  AIM  AQH  AIH  BTO  IFH  IPH  IFIM  PSB - Federal Aviation Administration
PHAK  PS/GAI  RMH  RSP  SSH  SPG  PCG  PWG - Federal Aviation Administration
«» FAA - Airworthiness Directives (ADs) - Federal Aviation Administration
«» FAA - Advisory Circulars (ACs) - Federal Aviation Administration

Aircraft and Pilot Certifications
FAA - Title 14, Chapter I, Part 1-59; Subchapter A,B,C - Justia.com
FCC - ARS (47 CFR Part 87) - RRT (47 CFR Part 13) - Federal Communications Commission
FAA - Airmen Certification Branch (14 CFR Part 61) - Federal Aviation Administration
AMAS - FAA Medication [Commonly Authorized] - Aviation Medicine Advisory Service
FAA - Aviation Medical Examiners - Federal Aviation Administration

Live Flight Tracking
FlightAware - Live Flight Tracking [General & Commercial] - FlightAware, LLC
Flightwise - 3D Flight Tracking [General & Commercial] - Aviation Data Systems, Inc
     1" Hg = 1,000ft ±6% feet altitude
     TERRAIN ELEVATION = (MSL Tower Height - AGL Tower Height)
     INDICATED ALTITUDE CALCULATION = ((Altimeter Current - Altimeter Previous) * 1000)
     STATUTE MILE[s] = (Nautical Mile[s] * 1.1507794480235425)
     NAUTICAL MILE[s] = (Statute Mile[s] * 0.8689762419006479)
     EAC - Enroute Aeronautical Charts = 1 Inch : 47NM
     JNC - Jet Navigation Chart (JNC 43-45) = 1 Inch : 27.43NM
     WAC - World Aeronautic Charts = 1 Inch : 13.7NM [16SM]
     SAC - Sectional Aeronautic Charts = 1 Inch : 6.86NM [8SM]
     TAC - Terminal Area Aeronautic Charts = 1 Inch : 3.43NM [4SM]
     FAHRENHEIT = (((9 / 5) * Celsius) + 32)
     CELSIUS = (((5 / 9) * (Fahrenheit - 32)
     CLOUD BASE [ESTIMATED] = ((((Temperature - Dew point) / 4.4) * 1000) + Station Altitude)
     ADF (FIXED CARD): Magnetic Heading = ((Magnetic Bearing - Relative Bearing [Arrow]) [if < 0] + 360)
     ADF (FIXED CARD): Magnetic Bearing = ((Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing [Arrow]) [if > 360] - 360)
     ADF (MOVABLE CARD): Magnetic Bearing = Relative Bearing [Arrow] degrees to the right [if HDG is set to Magnetic Heading]
     STANDARD WEIGHTS [PHAK CH9] = Gasoline = 6.0 lb/gal…Jet A = 6.8 lb/gal…Jet B = 6.5 lb/gal…Oil = 7.5 lb/gal…Water = 8.35 lb/gal
     CENTER OF GRAVITY [INCHES] = ((Total Moment / Total Weight) * index [1;100;1000] )
     MOMENT = ((Weight * Arm) / index [1;100;1000] )
     TRUE to MAGNETIC = ADD West Variation & Right Wind Angle; SUBTRACT East Variation & Left Wind Angle
     CROSS WIND = Wind Speed * SIN{ (Headwind Runway[degrees] - Wind Direction[degrees]) * 0.0174532925 }

     REQUIRED INFORMATION FOR TAKEOFF/LANDING DISTANCES
     PRESSURE ALTITUDE = ((29.92 - Altimeter) * 1000) + Airport MSL
     HEAD WIND = Wind Speed * COS{ (Headwind Runway[degrees] - Wind Direction[degrees]) * 0.0174532925 }
     TEMPERATURE = Airport Temperature °C
     AIRCRAFT MAX WEIGHT = AFM Maximum Weight [lbs]

     ANGLE OF BANK 10° 30° 45° 60° 70° 80° 85° 90°
     LOAD FACTOR 1.0 1.015 1.154 1.414 2.000 2.923 5.747 11.473 INFINITE
TEMPERATURE, MOISTURE, PRESSURE, WIND, & MISC Weather Conversions
The forecast office in Salt Lake City is part of a nationwide network of offices under the National Weather Service (NWS). The NWS is a division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce.

MISC WEATHER INFORMATION
    Air Masses are large bodies of air in which temperature and humidity are fairly uniform horizontally.
    Source Regions are characterized by uniform surface conditions.
AIR MASS CLASSIFICATIONS:  cPk  cAk  mTw  mEw
    SURFACE REGIONs:  c = continental,  m = maritime
    SOURCE REGIONs:  P = Polar,  A = Artic,  T = Tropical   E = Equitorial
    SOURCE vs. SURFACE TEMPERATUREs:  k = colder,  w = warmer
NOAA SOLAR CALCULATOR
Find Sunrise, Sunset, Solar Noon and Solar Position for Any Place on Earth. This solar calculator is provided for research and entertainment purposes only. Due to variable atmospheric conditions and uncertainty inherent in the algorithms used, the actual observed values of sunrise, sunset and solar position may differ from the results presented here.
Website Author This website was created in August 2010 by Kenneth M. Scott of Kent, WA to assist Student and General Aviation pilots in acquiring pertinent information on weather, regulations, and flight planning.   This site contains direct links to official and unofficial FAA supported websites to assist with your Go-No-Go aeronautical decision making process.  The ultimate mission of this website is to provide a central repository for information to assist pilots satisfying FAR 91.103(A,B,1,2) [Each PIC shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available information concerning that flight].  This website is providing a service to the aviation community free of charge and does not receive donations, advertising, or sponsorship to maintain, update, or cover bandwidth expenses for this site.  Hopefully this website is seen as a tool for continuing flight safety education.  Thank you for visiting.
VFRwx Flight Planner ™  [BETA VERSION]

This utility acquires pertinent information about the selected Departure & Arrival Airports as well as the current METAR information. The information is then processed to determine "ESTIMATED" Pressure & Density Altitude, Cloud Base, and Frost/Freezing Level.

This tool will continuously be modified and updated to provide additional information in assisting with flight planning requirements.
Converting LOCAL to UTC
PDT +8 MDT +7 CDT +6 EDT +5
PST +7 MST +6 CST +5 EST +4
     Recommended Viewing = «»
CALCULATOR FUNCTIONS
WEATHER  -  SOLAR CALC
VFRwx FLIGHT PLANNER ™

Website Information
IFR/VFR WEBSITE  -  NIST

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