Visual Flight Rules, Aviation Weather, VFR Weather, and Information for Pilot's
vfrweather.com & vfrwx.com [Updated: 05/22/2015 22:35:50 PDT]
VFR Weather - Visual Flight Rules Weather
VISUAL FLIGHT RULES - Rules that govern the procedures for conducting flight under visual conditions. The term "VFR" is also used in the United States to indicate weather conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling equal to or better than specified minima [VFR Weather Minimums]. In addition, it is used by pilots and controllers to indicate type of flight plan.


FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS
    FAR 43.3(g) - A holder of a pilot certificate issued under part 61 may perform preventive maintenance on any aircraft owned or operated by that pilot which is not used under part 121, 129, or 135.
    FAR 43.7(f) - A person holding at least a private pilot certificate may approve an aircraft for return to service after performing preventive maintenance. [Appendix A part C 01-32]
    FAR 43 - Appendix A (c) Preventive maintenance is limited to the following work, provided it does not involve complex assembly operations:
    (1) Removal, installation, and repair of landing gear tires.
    (2) Replacing elastic shock absorber cords on landing gear.
    (3) Servicing landing gear shock struts by adding oil, air, or both.
    (4) Servicing landing gear wheel bearings, such as cleaning and greasing.
    (5) Replacing defective safety wiring or cotter keys.
    (6) Lubrication not requiring disassembly other than removal of nonstructural items such as cover plates, cowlings, and fairings.
    (7) Making simple fabric patches not requiring rib stitching or the removal of structural parts or control surfaces.
    (8) Replenishing hydraulic fluid in the hydraulic reservoir.
    (9) Refinishing decorative coating of fuselage, balloon baskets, wings tail group surfaces (excluding balanced control surfaces), fairings, cowlings, landing gear, cabin, or cockpit interior...
    (10) Applying preservative or protective material to components where no disassembly of any primary structure or operating system is involved ...
    (11) Repairing upholstery and decorative furnishings of the cabin, cockpit, or balloon basket interior...
    (12) Making small simple repairs to fairing, nonstructural cover plates, cowling, and small patches and reinforcements...
    (13) Replacing side windows where that work does not interfere with the structure or any operating system such as controls, electrical equipment...
    (14) Replacing safety belts.
    (15) Replacing seats or seat parts with replacement parts approved for the aircraft, not involving disassembly of any primary structure...
    (16) Trouble shooting and repairing broken circuits in landing light wiring circuits.
    (17) Replacing bulbs, reflectors, and lenses of position and landing lights.
    (18) Replacing wheels and skis where no weight and balance computation is involved.
    (19) Replacing any cowling not requiring removal of the propeller or disconnection of flight controls.
    (20) Replacing or cleaning spark plugs and setting of spark plug gap clearance.
    (21) Replacing any hose connection except hydraulic connections.
    (22) Replacing prefabricated fuel lines.
    (23) Cleaning or replacing fuel and oil strainers or filter elements.
    (24) Replacing and servicing batteries.
    (25) Cleaning of balloon burner pilot and main nozzles in accordance with the balloon manufacturer's instructions.
    (26) Replacement or adjustment of nonstructural standard fasteners incidental to operations.
    (27) The interchange of balloon baskets and burners on envelopes when the basket or burner is designated as interchangeable...
    (28) The installations of anti-misfueling devices to reduce the diameter of fuel tank filler openings...
    (29) Removing, checking, and replacing magnetic chip detectors.
    (30,i,ii), (31), (32)
AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION MANUAL
    AIM 1-1 - A CDI (course deviation indicator) centered should read 0° FROM on the OBS (omnibearing selector) or 180° TO when using a VOT.
    AIM 4-1 - If the cloud base / flight ceiling is above 5,000AGL and visibility is greater than 5NM; ceiling, sky condition, visibility, and obstructions may be omitted from the ATIS broadcast.
    AIM 4-3-10b - An aircraft is expected to taxi to (but not onto) the end of the assigned runway unless prior approval for an intersection departure is received from ground control.
    AIM 4-3-10c - Pilots should state their position on the airport when calling the tower for takeoff from a runway intersection (Runway Hold Position Sign and/or Runway Guard Lights)
    AIM 4-3-11b5 - The minimum visibility for a pilot to receive a land and hold short clearance (LAHSO) is 1,000ft AGL and 3SM visibility [FAR 91.155].
    AIM 7-4 - Pilots are requested to maintain a minimum altitude of 2,000ft AGL from National Wildlife Refuges, Big Game Refuges, Game Ranges and Wildlife Ranges administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
    AIM 8-1 - Objects may appear father away if flying in haze or other view limiting situations due to a relaxed eye focus of 10-30ft (empty field myopia)
    WX CH7 - Four basic cloud types are divided into four families; High, Middle, Low, and clouds developing vertically
    WX CH8 - Steady precipitation preceding a front is an indication of stratiform clouds with little or no turbulence
    PHAK CH5 - Applying carb heat will decrease air density causing a richer mixture (higher fuel to air ratio).
    PHAK CH6 - If the Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is warmer than standard the density altitude will be higher than pressure altitude
    PHAK CH11/AIM 7-1 - Area Forecast (FA) contains information on forecast meteorological conditions, clouds, and general weather conditions over an area the size of several states
    PHAK CH14 - Add West variation and right wind angle, Subtract East variation and left wind angle. (West is best and Right is right)
    Flight Information Manual
  1. General
  2. Operating Limitations
  3. Emergency Procedures
  4. Normal Operating Procedures
  5. Performance
  6. Weight and Balance (Equipment List)
  7. Airplane Systems
  8. Handling, Preventive and Corrective Maintenance
  9. Supplements

FAR [Quick Ref] = [60] Airmen, [70] Airspace, [90] ATC
STANDARD AVIATION PHRASEOLOGY (Left+Click link for EXAMPLES or view PCG for full list)
    ABEAM - Your general position approximately 90 degrees to the right or left of the aircraft track from a specified fix, point, or object.
    ACKNOWLEDGE - Let me know that you have received my message
    ADVISE INTENTIONS - Tell me what you plan to do
    AFFIRMATIVE - Yes
    BLOCKED - Indicate that a radio transmission has been distorted or interrupted due to multiple simultaneous radio transmissions.
    CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF - Authorization for an aircraft to depart
    CLEARED FOR THE OPTION - Authorization for touch and go, low approach, missed approach, stop and go, or full-stop landing.
    CLEARED TO LAND - Authorization for an aircraft to land (based on known traffic and physical airport conditions).
    CLOSED TRAFFIC - Successive operations involving takeoffs and landings or low approaches where the aircraft does not exit the pattern.
    EXPEDITE - Prompt compliance is required to avoid an imminent situation
    FINAL - Aligned with the final approach course
    FLY HEADING (Degrees) - Specifies the heading/direction the pilot should fly expecting a turn with the shortest degree angle required.
    FUEL REMAINING - A cautionary advisory to ATC on the fuel remaining (in minutes) on board the aircraft until actual fuel exhaustion.
    GO AROUND - Instructions for a pilot to abandon their approach to land. VFR aircraft should overfly the runway climbing to traffic pattern altitude and re-enter the crosswind leg. IFR should execute the published missed approach procedure or proceed as instructed by ATC.
    HAVE NUMBERS - Used by pilots to inform ATC that they have received runway, wind, and altimeter information only (not receipt of ATIS).
    HEAVY - Alerts air traffic controller that an aircraft generates significant wake turbulence.
    HOLD FOR - Stay in place; where you are currently located
    HOW DO YOU HEAR ME? - Questions the quality of radio transmission or reception
    IDENT - Request for a pilot to activate the aircraft transponder identification feature.
    IMMEDIATELY - Action compliance is required to avoid an imminent situation
    MAKE SHORT APPROACH - Informs a pilot to alter his traffic pattern so as to make a short final approach.
    MAYDAY - Repeated three times indicates imminent and grave danger and immediate assistance is requested.
    MINIMUM FUEL - Indicates that an aircraft's fuel supply has reached a margin of safety where little to no delay is highly requested.
    NEGATIVE - No that is not correct
    NEGATIVE CONTACT - Informs ATC that specified traffic is not in sight OR unable to establish ATC frequency communication.
    LINE UP AND WAIT - Instructs a pilot to taxi onto the departure runway, line up, and wait. This instruction is not authorization to takeoff.
    RADAR CONTACT - Informs an aircraft that it is identified and flight following will be provided until radar identification is terminated.
    RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED - Inform a pilot that he will no longer be provided any radar services.
    READ BACK - Repeat my message back to me
    REPORT - Instruct pilots to advise ATC of specified information
    ROGER - I have received you last transmission. NOT used for a YES/NO question
    SAY AGAIN - Used to request a repeat of the last transmission
    SPEAK SLOWER - Request to reduce speech rate during communications.
    SQUAWK - Specifies setting and activation of modes, codes, and functions on the aircraft transponder.
    STAND BY - Pause a few seconds before reestablishing communications. It is NOT approval or denial.
    TRAFFIC HOLDING IN POSITION - Advises other aircraft that traffic has been authorized to "Line Up and Wait" on an active runway.
    TRAFFIC IN SIGHT - Inform a controller that previously issued traffic is in sight.
    UNABLE - Inability to comply with a specific instruction, request, or clearance
    VERIFY - Request confirmation or information
    WITHOUT DELAY - Proceed with approved instructions in a rapid manner
    WILCO - I have received your message, understand, and will comply
    5-BY-5 - Loud and clear. (PROPER: Bad, Poor, Fair, Good, Excellent)  TALLY-HO Aircraft has been sighted (PROPER: Traffic in sight).
STANDARD AVIATION ABBREVIATIONS A-E (Short List)
    ACs - Advisory Circulars
    ADC - Air Data Computer
    ADF - Automatic Direction Finder
    ADM - Aeronautical Decision Making process [Situational Awareness, Problem Recognition, Good Judgment]
    ADs - Airworthiness Directives
    A/FD - Airport/Facility Directory
    AFM - Airplane Flight Manual
    AFSS - Automated Flight Service Station
    AIM - Aeronautical Information Manual
    ARTCC - Air Route Traffic Control Center
    ASI - Airspeed Indicator
    ASR Approach - Airport Surveillance Radar - [Emergency: 121.5MHz - Monitored by FSS, FAA Radar Facilities, and most Control Towers]
    ATC - Air Traffic Control
    ATCRBS - ATC Radar Beacon System
    CDI - Course Deviation Indicator
    CFAs - Controlled Firing Areas
    CFI - Certificated Flight Instructor
    CFR - The Code of Federal Regulations
    CIG - Contraction for Cloud Ceilings - cloud bases measured from Above Ground Level.
    CRM - Crew Resource Management
    DOT - Department of Transportation
    DME - Distance Measuring Equipment
    DUATS - Direct User Access Terminal Service
    EFAS - En Route Flight Advisory Service - Flight Watch 122.0MHz [<18,000FT]
    EFD - Electronic Flight Display
    EGT - Exhaust Gas Temperature
    ELT - Emergency Locator Transmitters - Transmits on 121.5MHz, 243.0MHz, & 406.0MHz
    EPR - Engine Pressure Ratio
STANDARD AVIATION ABBREVIATIONS F-Z (Short List)
    FA - Area Forecasts
    FAA - Federal Aviation Administration
    FBO - Fixed Based Operator
    FOD - Foreign Object Damage
    GPS - Global Positioning System
    HIWAS - Hazardous In-flight Weather Advisory
    IFR - Instrument Flight Rules
    LIFR - Low Instrument Flight Rules
    MEL - Minimum Equipment Lists
    METAR - Meteorological Aerodrome Report [UPDATED: Hourly]
    MFD - Multi-Function Display
    MOAs - Military Operation Areas
    MTRs - Military Training Routes
    MVFR - Marginal Visual Flight Rules
    NEXRAD - Next Generation Weather Radar System
    NOTAMs - Notices to Airmen
    NSAs - National Security Areas
    OBS - Omni Bearing Selector
    OAT - Outside Air Temperature
    PIC - Pilot in Command
    PIREPs - Pilot Weather Reports
    POH - Pilot’s Operating Handbook
    RCO - Remote Communications Outlets [relays communication to FSS]
    REIL - Runway End Identifier Lights
    RMI - Radio Magnetic Indicator
    TAF - Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts [UPDATED: 0000z, 0600z, 1200z, and 1800z]
    TFR - Temporary Flight Restrictions
    TRSAs - Terminal Radar Service Areas
    TIBS - Transcribed Information Briefing Service
    TWEB - Transcribed Weather Broadcast
    VASI - Visual Approach Slope Indicator
    VFR - Visual Flight Rules
    VOR - Very High Frequency (VHF) Omnidirectional Range
    VSI - Vertical Speed Indicator
COMMON V-SPEED DEFINITIONS:
    V1 - takeoff decision speed
    V2 - takeoff safety speed
    Va - design maneuvering speed [FAR 25.1583 Full pitch, roll, or yaw controls will stall the aircraft below Va - structural failures above Va]
    Vb - design speed for maximum gust intensity
    Vbe - best endurance speed
    Vbg - best power-off glide speed
    Vbr - best range speed
    Vc - design cruise speed
    Vd - design dive speed
    Vdf - demonstration dive speed
    Vf - design flap speed
    Vfe - maximum flap-extended speed (top of white arc)
    Vh - maximum speed in level flight with maximum continuous power
    Vle - maximum landing-gear extended speed
    Vlo - maximum landing-gear operating speed
    Vlof - lift-off speed
    Vmca - minimum control speed with critical engine out, out of ground effect (red radial line)
    Vmcg - minimum control speed with critical engine out during takeoff run
    Vmo - maximum operating speed
    Mmo - maximum operating Mach number
    Vmu - minimum unstick speed
    Vne - never-exceed speed
    Vno - maximum structural cruising speed (top of green arc)
    Vr - rotation speed
    Vref - reference speed for final approach, normally (1.3 x Vso)
    Vso - stall speed in landing configuration (bottom of white arc)
    Vs1 - stall speed in a specified configuration (bottom of green arc)
    Vsse - minimum safe single-engine speed
    Vx - best angle-of-climb speed
    Vxse - best single-engine angle-of-climb speed
    Vy - best rate-of-climb speed
    Vyse - best single-engine rate-of-climb speed
CHR MORSE SOUNDS LIKE NATO PHONETIC
A  . ¯  Aircraft Altitude Air Traffic Control Alfa (AL-FAH)
B  ¯ . . .  Beechcraft Bonanza Barometric Barometer Bernoulli Law Boundary Layer Bearing Bravo (BRAH-VOH)
C  ¯ . ¯ .  Cessna Cockpit Ceiling Clouds Controlled Airspace Center of Gravity Common Traffic Advisory Frequency Charlie (CHAR-LEE)
D  ¯ . .  Dead Reckoning Departure Control Directional Gyro Drag Distance Measuring Equipment Delta (DELL-TAH)
E  .  East Echo (ECK-OH)
F  . . ¯ .  Flight Plan Flight Level Flight Service Station Flight Manual Fuel on Board Frequency Flying Foxtrot (FOKS-TROT)
G  ¯ ¯ .  General Aviation Ground Control Global Positioning System Glideslope Ground Speed Golf (GOLF)
H  . . . .  Heading Heading Indicator Height Above Ground Level Hazardous In-flight Weather Advisory Service Heliport High Intensity Runway Lights Horizontal Separation Hotel (HOH-TEL)
I  . .  Instrument Flight Rules Instrument Meteorological Conditions Indicated Airspeed India (IN-DEE-AH)
J  . ¯ ¯ ¯  Jet Airway Jeppesen Jet A-1 Jet Engine JAA JAR JSIT Juliett (JEW-LEE-ETT)
K  ¯ . ¯  Knots Kneeboards Kerosene Known Traffic Kits Kilo (KEY-LOH)
L  . ¯ . .  Laminar Flow Light Sport Aircraft Lift Load Factor LORAN LAHSHO Lift-Drag Ratio Lima (LEE-MAH)
M  ¯ ¯  Magnetic Variation Magnetic Deviation METAR Mike (MIKE)
N  ¯ .  North NDB Navaid November (NO-VEM-BER)
O  ¯ ¯ ¯  Outside Air Temperature Obstacle Clearance Outer Marker Overshoot On Course Oscar (OSS-CAH)
P  . ¯ ¯ .  Pilot in Command Pitot Tube Pitch Power Precision Approach Radar Precision Approach Path Indicator Primary Flight Display Papa (PAH-PAH)
Q  ¯ ¯ . ¯  Quadaplane Qualifications QFE Q-Routes Quality Control Qualified Flight Instructor Quality Policy Manual Quebec (KEH-BECK)
R  . ¯ .  Terminal Radar Approach Control Rudder Runway End Identification Lights Runway Visual Range aRea NAVigation Romeo (ROW-ME-OH)
S  . . .  South Stall Standard Terminal ARrival Stabilized Approach Squawk Sierra (SEE-AIR-RAH)
T  ¯  Transponder Tango (TANG-GO)
U  . . ¯  Universal Communication Useful Load Uncontrolled Airspace Undershoot Undercarriage Uniform (YOU-NEE-FORM)
V  . . . ¯  Vertical Speed Indicator Very High Frequency Omni Range Venturi Visual Meteorological Conditions Visual Flight Rules Vapor Trail V Speeds Victor (VIK-TAH)
CHR MORSE SOUNDS LIKE NATO PHONETIC
W  . ¯ ¯  West World Meteorological Organization Wide Area Augmentation System Wing Loading Wet Compass Whiskey (WISS-KEY)
X  ¯ . . ¯  XM Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules Xray (ECKS-RAY)
Y  ¯ . ¯ ¯  Yaw Yoke VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules Yankee (YANG-KEY)
Z  ¯ ¯ . .  VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather Zulu (ZOO-LOO)
1  . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯  VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules One (WUN)
2  . . ¯ ¯ ¯ VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules Two (TOO)
3  . . . ¯ ¯ VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules Three (TREE)
4  . . . . ¯ VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules Four (FOW-ER)
5  . . . . .  VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather Five (FIFE)
6  ¯ . . . .  VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather Six (SIX)
7  ¯ ¯ . . .  VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather Seven (SEV-EN)
8  ¯ ¯ ¯ . .  VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather Eight (AIT)
9  ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ .  VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather Nine (NIN-ER)
0  ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules Zero (ZEE-RO)
.  . ¯ . ¯ . ¯ VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules Period
,  ¯ ¯ . . ¯ ¯ VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules Comma
:  ¯ ¯ ¯ . . .  VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather Colon
?  . . ¯ ¯ . .  VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather Question Mark
"  . ¯ . . ¯ .  VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather Quotation Marks
´  . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ .  VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather Apostrophe
-  ¯ . . . . ¯ VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules Hyphen
!  ¯ . ¯ . ¯ ¯ VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Weather VFR Flight VFR Rules VFR Flight VFR Rules Exclamation Mark
FAR 61.53
    I LLNESSES
    M EDICATIONS

    S TRESS
    A LCOHOL
    F ATIGUE
    E MOTION / EAT MEAL
    P ILOT
    A IRCRAFT
    EN V IRONMENT
    E XTERNAL PRESSURES

    C ONSEQUENCES
    A LTERNATIVES
    R EALITY
    E XTERNAL PRESSURES
VFR PROGNOSTIC & RADAR CHART
AIRCRAFT REQUIREMENTS
    A IRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE
    R EGISTRATION (AIRCRAFT)
    R ESTRICTED RADIOTELEPHONE OPERATOR PERMIT (OUTSIDE USA)
    O WNERS MANUAL (PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK)
    W EIGHT & BALANCE
    S TATE REGISTRATION (AIRCRAFT)
PREFLIGHT INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR FLIGHTS
    R UNWAY LENGTHS
    A LTERNATES
    W EATHER

    F UEL REQUIREMENTS
    A TC DELAYS / TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS
    T AKEOFF/LANDING DISTANCE DATA
WEATHER BRIEFING
    S YNOPSIS
    A DVERSE CONDITIONS
    C URRENT WEATHER
    R
    E NROUTE FORCAST
    D ESTINATION TERMINAL FORECAST
    W INDS ALOFT
    I
    N OTAMS
    D
WEATHER CHARTS
    C ONSTANT PRESSURE
    O
    P ROGNOSTIC
    S URFACE ANALYSIS

    W EATHER DEPICTION
    A REA FORECAST - FA
    R ADAR SUMMARY - SD
    S EVERE WEATHER OUTLOOK - AC
VFR DAY REQUIRED EQUIPMENT - FAR 91.205(b01-b17)
    T ACHOMETER - each engine
    O IL PRESSURE GAUGE - each engine
    M ANIFOLD PRESSURE GAUGE - each altitude engine
    A LTIMETER
    T EMPERATURE GAUGE - each liquid-cooled engine
    O IL TEMPERATURE GAUGE - each engine

    F UEL LEVEL GAUGE - each tank
    F LOTATION GEAR & FLARES - if operated for hire over water
    L ANDING GEAR POSITION INDICATOR - if retractable gear
    A IRSPEED INDICATOR
    M AGNETIC COMPASS - with deviation card
    E MERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER (ELT) - CFR 91.207
    S AFTEY BELTS - including shoulder harnesses certified after 1978

    A NTI COLLISION LIGHTS - approved red or white certified after 1995
VFR NIGHT (+DAY) - FAR 91.205(c01-c06)
    F USES - three of each value or Circuit Breakers
    L ANDING LIGHTS - if operated for hire
    A NTICOLLISION LIGHTS - approved red or white
    P OSITION LIGHTS - navigation lights
    S OURCE OF ELECTRICITY - adequate for all equipment
IFR REQUIRED EQUIPMENT
    G ENERATOR/ALTERNATOR
    R ADIOS
    A TTITUDE
    B ALL (inclinometer)

    C LOCK
    A LTIMETER
    R ATE OF TURN - Turn and Slip Coordinator
    D IRECTIONAL GYRO
    D ME if using VORs at or above FL240
WAYPOINT, FIX, INTERSECTION, CHANGE OF COURSE
    T URN - Start Turn To New Heading
    T IME - Note Time, Start Timer
    T WIST - Tune/Select New Radio Freq (Identify), Set OBS
    T HROTTLE - Make Power Changes To Slow Down, Climb Or Descend
    T ALK - Make Required Reports


IFR MANDATORY REPORTS
    F IXES - Arriving or Leaving
    A LTITUDE CHANGES
    M ISSED APPROACH
    E QUIPMENT - Loss or Problems

    P ERFORMANCE - Poor Climb / Descend, TAS Change
FLIGHT CLEARANCE / DELIVERY
    C LEARANCE LIMIT
    R OUTING
    A LTITUDE
    F REQUENCY (RADIOS)
    T RANSPONDER CODE
    S PECIAL INSTRUCTIONS
BEFORE TAKEOFF
    C ONTROLS - Free And Correct, Flaps Operable
    I NSTRUMENTS - Flight And System Instruments Checked
    G AS - Fuel Tanks Checked And Selected
    A TTITUDE/TRIM - Set And Check Trim
    R ADIOS - VOR Check, Set COM And NAV Radios, Transponder
    S AFETY - Seats, Seat Belts, Security, Doors & Windows

    B OOST PUMP
    L IGHTS
    T RANSPONDER
TAKE OFF
    C RAM (POWER)
    C LIMB (PITCH)
    C LEAN (DRAG, FLAPS/GEAR UP)
    C OOL (COWL FLAPS)
    ANGLE OF ATTACK = Acute angle formed between the chord line of an airfoil and relative wind striking those surfaces.
    HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK Indication = ATTITUDE indicator is high (ascending) and VERTICAL SPEED indicator is low (descending).
    CRITICAL ANGLE OF ATTACK = is the angle of attack which produces maximum lift coefficient for a given surface allowing a wing to stall above this point regardless of airspeed, flight attitude, or weight. Typically 16° to 20° depending on design. As weight is increased more lift is required to achieve maximum lift. Lift Force = ½ * Air Density * Airspeed² * Surface Area * Lift Coefficient
    VICTOR Airways: These Federal Airways extend from 1,200FT AGL to 17,999ft MSL and has a primary protected obstacle clearance area of 8NM with 4NM on each side of the centerline.
    FLAPS = Do not increase lift; it allows the same amount of lift to be generated at slower airspeeds.
    SPIN ENTRY Definition: Maneuvering an aircraft with the ailerons opposite the direction of the turn (uncoordinated flight) as-well-as holding elevator back pressure (the aircraft is flying slower than the speed for which it is trimmed).
    LEFT TURNING TENDENCY [Propeller Driven - Single Engine]
    North American built single engine aircraft utilizing a single propeller spins (from the perspective of the pilot) to the right. There are four forces aggregated together turning the airplane to the LEFT during HIGH POWER and LOW SPEEDS.
    1) Propeller Rotation - utilizing Newtons law of equal and opposite reaction, the TORQUE of the spinning crank shaft and propeller to the right produces an equal and opposite force to the LEFT (rotational).
    2) Spiraling Slipstream (Cork Screw Effect) - is caused by the propeller rotating the airflow clockwise around the fuselage striking the vertical stabilizer on the left side aircraft yawing it to the LEFT.
    3) P-Factor (Asymmetric Propeller Loading) - the descending blade (right side of the aircraft) has a higher angle of attack to the relative wind than the ascending blade (left side of the aircraft). Think about wind blowing from left to right, the angle of the aircraft is 45° pointed up towards the wind direction. The descending blade is cutting into the wind while the ascending blade is moving with the wind. The right side of the propeller has more thrust than the left side there by yawing the aircraft to the LEFT.
    4) Gyroscopic Precession (tail-wheeled aircraft) - as the tail of the aircraft is raised off of the ground where friction of the tire is no longer effective, a vertical to horizontal force is applied to the spinning propeller (top and bottom). Due to the rotational axis of the propeller torque is redirected 90° perpendicular and horizontal in the direction of rotation (left side of propeller pulls and right pushes) yawing as well as pitching the aircraft to the LEFT.
    Very High Frequency (VHF) Omnidirectional Range (VOR) are simple devices in operation as-long-as you can visualize your aircraft in relationship to the RADIALS of the VOR. Knowing a few tricks will help you correctly decipher the information.
1) The heading of your aircraft does not affect the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) only your ground track over time.
2) A radial is defined as a line of Magnetic Bearing extending in a 360° arc FROM a VOR. The radial that is selected via the Omni Bearing Selector (OBS) defines your aircraft's relationship to that radial (In-front of [FROM], Behind [TO], Left, or Right - think of the radial as a super focused spotlight generated by the station pointing ONLY in the direction set by the OBS).
3) The ambiguity indicator [TO-FROM] defines your viewpoint to that radial (are seeing the spot light pointing away from you or are you blinded by it).
4) The VOR 0° radial on the Compass Rose found on charts always points to magnetic north.
5) The VOR indicator instrument has one open circle (your aircraft´s current position) and five solid dots (2° deviation from the selected OBS course).
COMPASS DIP
    A CCELERATE
    N ORTH
    D ECELERATE
    S OUTH

COMPASS LEAD / LAG
    N ORTH
    O PPOSITE
    S OUTH
    E XAGGERATED

PARTIAL-PANEL COMPASS TURNS
    U NDERSHOOT
    N ORTH
    O VERSHOOT
    S OUTH
PRE-LANDING CHECKLIST
    G AS - Fuel Tank Selection, Fuel Pump On
    U NDERCARRIAGE - Landing Gear Down
    M IXTURE - Normally Full Rich (Sea Level, At Least)
    P ROP - Full Increase (High RPM)
    S AFETY - Seats, Seat Belts, Cabin Security, Passenger Briefing
ENGINE OUT EMERGENCY
    P ITCH FOR BEST GLIDE
    L ANDING SITE
    (EASE!)

    S EAT BELTS
    T ROUBLESHOOT
    A PPROACH
    R ADIOS
    T URN OFF
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE
    M ILITARY OPERATIONS
    C ONTROLLED FIRING

    P ROHIBITED
    R ESTRICTED
    A LERT
    W ARNING
    N ATIONAL SECURITY
AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION CATEGORIES
    T RANSPORT
    U TILITY
    R ESTRICTED
    N ORMAL

    P ROVISIONAL
    A CROBATIC
    L IMITED
    E XPERIMENTAL
AIRPORT SIGN TYPES
    M ANDATORY INSTRUCTION
    I NFORMATION
    D ESTINATION

    D IRECTION
    L OCATION
    R UNWAY DISTANCE REMAINING

    RED AND WHITE = RUNWAY IS IN-SIGHT
    BLACK SQUARE = YOU ARE THERE
    YELLOW RAY = POINTS THE WAY

    RUNWAY BOUNDARY = Identifies entrance to runway from taxiway
    OUTBOUND DESTINATION = Shows direction to the takeoff runway
NTSB NOTIFICATIONS
    P ROPERTY DAMAGE >= $25k
    -
    F IRE - In Flight
    A CCIDENT
    C OLLISION - In Flight
    T URBINE FAILURE
    I LLNESS OF CREW MEMBER
    O VERDUE AIRCRAFT
    N O CONTROL - Control failure of Any Sort

NOTE: Report filed within 10 days after an accident [NTSB 830.15].
Morse Learner (v2006.2.14) By Wilfred Verkley http://www.wxv.co.nz/morselearner/ is a small computer program for Microsoft Windows to assist in learning and experimenting with international morse code. You can use it to transmit or playback morse messages, practice learning to receive morse characters, practice transmitting morse characters, or practice receiving whole words. Its emphasis is to make learning morse code easy and fun. Requires Microsoft .NET 1.1 framework. HINT: Press F2 to quickly start your practice session. NOTE: Windows XP support only.
Neil Spooner in a Tipsy Nipper over corrected a standard aerobatic stall and how he recovered from his 26 Turn Flat Spin. 1:40min into video clip from LoopTV.Aero
Steve Henry of Caldwell, Idaho shows a dead stick takeoff in his STOL Highlander
Go to deadsticktakeoff.com for more video moments.
    WEATHER DATA: Direction of weather, movement, & wind information PRINTED or published is measured from TRUE NORTH. PIREPS, ASOS, AWOS, & ATIS spoken or VOICE messages are measured from MAGNETIC NORTH.   PRINT = TRUE; VOICE = MAGNETIC;
    AIRPORT ADVISORY AREA Area within 10 miles of an airport without an operational control tower, and on which a Flight Service Station is located.
    TWEB: Transcribed Weather Broadcasts provides continuous aeronautical and meteorological information over certain NDB and VOR facilities including selected route forecasts.
    STANDARD ATMOSPHERE = Temperature = 20°C (68°F), Air Density = 1.225 kg/m³ (0.0765 lb/cu ft), Altitude = Sea Level, Relative Humidity = 20%
    STANDARD DATUM PLANE = Pressure altitude indicated when altimeter is set to 29.92 in Hg.
    ABSOLUTE ALTITUDE = Height above ground level (AGL)
    TRUE ALTITUDE = Height above mean sea level (MSL)
    INDICATED ALTITUDE = Altitude shown on the altimeter
    PRESSURE ALTITUDE [Standard Datum Plane] = Indicated altitude of an altimeter when set to 29.92"Hg (1013 hPa, 14.696psi)
Flying from LOW to HIGH pressure, true altitude will be higher than indicated.
Flying from HIGH to LOW pressure, true altitude will be lower than indicated.

    DENSITY ALTITUDE = Pressure altitude corrected for Non-Standard Atmosphere temperature and humidity.
    HIGH DENSITY ALTITUDE = HIGHER than standard TEMPERATURE and/or HUMIDITY.
Flying from COLDER to HOTTER regions, true altitude will be higher than indicated altitude.
    LOW DENSITY ALTITUDE = LOWER than standard TEMPERATURE and/or HUMIDITY.
Flying from HOTTER to COLDER regions, true altitude will be lower than indicated altitude.
    NAVIGATION:  COURSE: Intended direction of travel (Line on map or Point-A to Point-B).  HEADING: The magnetic direction the nose of the airplane is pointing.   TRACK: The actual path over the surface of earth the aircraft has traveled.
    PRIMARY Instruments: The instrument that provides the most pertinent information.
    SUPPORTING Instruments: The instruments that provides quality control and confirms primary instrumentation.
    NOTE: Proficient instrument pilots utilize the ATTITUDE indicator ¾ of the time during instrument scanning procedures.>
    HYPOXIA (altitude sickness) reduces the amount of oxygen in the brain causing such symptoms as dizziness, shortness of breath, and mental confusion. affinity hypoxia = failure of the hemoglobin to release oxygen to the tissues, as may occur with a left-shifted oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. anemic hypoxia = reduction of the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood as a result of a decrease in the total hemoglobin or an alteration of the hemoglobin constituents. histotoxic hypoxia = impaired utilization of oxygen by tissues, as in cyanide poisoning. hypoxemic(hypoxic) hypoxia = insufficient oxygen reaching the blood, as at the decreased barometric pressures of high altitudes. stagnant hypoxia = failure to transport sufficient oxygen because of inadequate blood flow, as in heart failure.
    Hazardous Attitudes [Embry Riddle] = Anti-authority ["Don´t tell me!"], Impulsivity ["Do something quickly!"], Invulnerability ["It won´t happen to me!"], Macho ["I can do it!"], Resignation ["What´s the use?"]
VFR AIRSPACE SEC
VFR AIRPORTS SEC
VFR TOPOGRAPHIC SEC
VFR COMMUNICATION SEC
CLASS ALTITUDE AIRSPACE VISIBILITY CLOUD CLEARANCE ENTRY EQUIPMENT RATING VFR
SEPARATION
ADVISORIES SERVICES
A >= 18,000MSL &
<= FL600
50 Contiguous
HI, AK[EAST]
- - IFR: ATC Clearance
VFR: Operations Prohibited
IFR Equipped Instrument Rating - YES -
B > SURFACE &
<= 10,000MSL
30NM MODE C
Radius
Custom Shelf
§§§ Clear of Clouds ATC Clearance Two-Way Radio, Transponder
with Altitude Reporting
Private Certificate or
Authorized Student
ALL YES Radar, Instrument Approaches, Weather, Control Tower, High Density
C > SURFACE &
<= 4,000MSL
5NM Radius Core
10NM Radius > 1,200MSL
§§§ ‡‡‡ IFR: ATC Clearance
VFR: Prior Two-Way
Communication w/ATC
Two-Way Radio, Transponder
with Altitude Reporting
Student Certificate IFR YES Radar, Instrument Approaches, Weather, Control Tower
D > SURFACE &
<= 2,500MSL
Based on Instrument
Procedures
§§§ ‡‡‡ IFR: ATC Clearance
VFR: Prior Two-Way
Communication w/ATC
Two-Way Radio Student Certificate Runway Operations Workload Permitting Instrument Approaches, Weather, Control Tower
E >= 10,000MSL &
< 18,000MSL
IFR
Controlled
5 SM 1,000FT Abv;
1,000FT Blw;
1SM Hrzntl
IFR: ATC Clearance
Ø for VFR
Transponder
with Altitude Reporting
Student Certificate Ø Workload Permitting Instrument Approaches, Weather
E > 1,200AGL &
< 10,000MSL
" §§§ ‡‡‡ " Ø " " " "
G > 1,200AGL &
>= 10,000MSL
Uncontrolled 5 SM 1,000FT Abv;
1,000FT Blw;
1SM Horzntl
Ø for VFR Ø Student Certificate Ø Workload Permitting Control Tower or Nothing
G > 1,200AGL &
< 10,000MSL [NIGHT]
" §§§ ‡‡‡ " " " " " "
G > 1,200AGL &
< 10,000MSL [DAY]
" 1 SM " " " " " " "
G <= 1,200AGL [NIGHT] " §§§
[91.155(b)]
" " " " " " "
G <= 1,200AGL [DAY] " 1 SM
[91.155(b)]
Clear of Clouds " " " " " "
                 §§§ = 3 SM;  ‡‡‡ = 1,000FT Above; 500FT Below; 2,000FT Horizontal;  Ø = Not Required or None
E6B CALCULATION EXAMPLES
Question: On a cross-country flight, point A is crossed at 11:00Z and the plan is to reach point B at 11:45Z. Use the following information to determine the indicated airspeed required to reach point B on schedule.
Information: Distance between A & B = 83NM; Forcast Winds 174° at 23kts; Pressure Altitude = 7,600ft; Ambient temperature = -15°C; True Course = 133°
E6B Functions: 1) Ground Speed [GS], 2) Required True Air Speed [REQTAS], Required Calibrated Air Speed [REQCAS]. Answer: 118.5 kts

Question: While en route to Hoquiam on Victor 27 from Seattle, your flight crosses the 346° radial of Olympia VORTAC at 1234Z; then crosses the WONKU intersection at 1239Z. What is the estimated time at arrival at Hoquiam VORTAC near Ocean Shores?
Information: Distance between 346° radial of Olympia VORTAC & WONKU intersection = 12.5NM; Distance between WONKU and HQM is 44NM
E6B Functions: 1) Ground Speed [GS], 2) LEG TIME  Answer: 1257Z

Question: What is the estimated time en route from Auburn S50 to Arlington KAWO?
Information: Distance is 50NM, Course is 3°, and wind is from 312° & 13KTS and the true airspeed is 142KTS. Add 9min for departure and climb-out.
E6B Functions: 1) Heading/GS [HDG/GS], 2) LEG TIME  Answer: 32min

Question: If a true heading of 138° results in a ground track of 127° and a true airspeed of 136 knots results in a ground speed of 152 knots, the wind would be from?
E6B Functions: 1) Wind.  Answer: 253° at 32 kts

Question: Determine the pressure altitude at an airport that is 3,583 feet MSL with an altimeter setting of 29.72.
Information: International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)'s International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is 15°C [59°F], adiabatic lapse of 2°C [3.5°F] per 1000ft, and barometric pressure of 1013.25hPa (millibars) or 29.92in Hg
E6B Functions: 1) P-D/ALT.  Answer: 3,783ft
TIM´s AIR NAVIGATION SIMULATOR
I decided to write this applet in order to learn java - it's my first java applet!
I am also considering getting an instrument rating and thought this would be a good way to really sharpen my understanding of air navigation.
Please send me your comments! - Tim Carlson (mimatvisidotcom)
WASHINGTON STATE AIRPORT REFERENCE GUIDE

The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) Aviation is responsible for protecting and preserving Washington State’s 139 public use general aviation airports. Airports are a vital part of the communities they serve and are an important part of Washington State’s transportation system.
(Left+Click link for MORE information)
EXPLICIT RUNWAY CROSSING PROCEDURE CHANGE
FAA Order N JO 7110.532

Beginning June 30, 2010, controllers will be required to issue explicit instructions to cross or hold short of each runway that intersects a taxi route.  "Taxi to" will no longer be used when issuing taxi instructions to an assigned take-off runway.   Instructions to cross a runway normally will be issued one at a time. An aircraft or vehicle must have crossed the previous runway before another runway crossing is issued. Exceptions may apply for closely spaced runways.  This applies to any runway including inactive or closed runways.  Changes will also be made to the AIM and AIP to reflect the new procedures.   Never cross a hold line without explicit ATC instructions. If in doubt ASK!  Reminder: You may not enter a runway unless you have been: instructed to cross or taxi onto that specific runway; cleared to take off from that runway; or instructed to position and hold on that specific runway.
(Left+Click link for MORE information)
LINE UP AND WAIT PHRASEOLOGY CHANGE
FAA Notice JO 7110.754

Beginning on September 30, 2010, the words "Position and Hold" will no longer be used to instruct a pilot to enter the runway and await takeoff clearance. Under the new "Line Up and Wait" phraseology, the controller will:
  • State the call-sign.
  • State the departure runway.
  • State "Line Up and Wait".
Differences in phraseology contribute to runway incursions. Analysis by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) revealed that differences between FAA and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) air traffic control phraseology contribute to runway incursion risks. NTSB recommended that the FAA adopt the international standard terminology: "Line Up and Wait" to replace "Position and Hold".  FAA Safety Analysis. In accordance with its Safety Management System procedures, the FAA Air Traffic Organization conducted a safety analysis of this recommendation. FAA implemented mitigations to ensure a safe transition from the old phraseology to the new.  Exercise caution. Be aware the phrase "Traffic Holding in Position" will continue to be used to advise other aircraft that traffic has been authorized to "Line Up and Wait" on an active runway.  REMEMBER: Never cross a hold line without explicit ATC instructions. You may not enter a runway unless you have been:
  • Instructed to cross or taxi onto that specific runway
  • Cleared to take off from that runway, or
  • Instructed to "Line Up and Wait" on that specific runway
King County International Airport / Boeing Field (KBFI) - VFR APPROACH
Welcome!  King County International Airport—also known as Boeing Field—is one of the busiest primary non-hub airports in the nation. Located just five miles south of downtown Seattle, it averages more than 300,000 operations (takeoffs and landings) each year. In 2001, it was selected by the National Air Transportation Association as one of the "100 Most Needed Airports" in the United States. It is financed by airport tenants´ and customers´ fees, and receives no general tax revenues.  Boeing Field ranks among the most successful public investments in state history.   The airport serves small commercial passenger airlines, cargo carriers, private aircraft owners, helicopters, corporate jets, and military and other aircraft. It is also home to the Boeing Company’s 737 aircraft flight-test program, along with other Boeing operations. The Museum of Flight is located there, with its wide variety of aircraft and exhibits showcasing aviation history. It is frequently host to celebrities and dignitaries—including the President of the United States—who prefer Boeing Field because of its proximity to downtown Seattle and other commercial areas.
Snoqualmie Valley - East Practice Area [SEATTLE, WA]
VFR TERMINAL AREA CHART - MAY 30 2013 [Click to Download]

Meteorological Aerodrome Report [UPDATED: Hourly]
2015/05/25 12:53 - KBFI 251253Z VRB05KT 10SM SCT015 OVC023 13/08 A3001 RMK AO2 SLP160 T01330083 -
2015/05/25 12:53 - KRNT 251253Z AUTO 17007KT 10SM OVC017 13/08 A3001 RMK AO2 SLP166 T01280083 $ -
2015/05/25 12:53 - KPAE 251253Z AUTO 20007KT 10SM OVC022 12/08 A3000 RMK AO2 SLP158 T01170083 -
2015/05/25 12:55 - KPWT 251255Z AUTO 18006KT 10SM FEW008 BKN020 OVC026 10/09 A3003 RMK AO1 -
2015/05/25 12:55 - KAWO 251255Z AUTO 00000KT 10SM OVC012 12/08 A3001 RMK AO1 -

Terminal Aerodrome Forecast [UPDATED: 0000z, 0600z, 1200z, and 1800z]